Discourse Analysis and Vocabulary 黃宏祿 email@example.com 0921-776607
Discourse Analysis and Vocabulary • Vocabulary and the Organizing of Text • Signaling Larger Textual Patterns • Register and Signaling Vocabulary • Modality • Conclusion
Closed Systems Grammar Words Function Words Empty Words Open Systems (open-ended, creative) Lexical Words Content Words Full Words Closed and Open Systems of Vocabulary
Example (3.9) • Here I want to spend time examining thisissue. First, I propose to look briefly at the history of interest in the problem, then spend some time on its origins and magnitude before turning to an assessment of the present situation and approaches to its solution. Finally, I want to have a short peek at possible future prospects. • DISCOURSE-ORGANIZING WORDS issue—problem—assessment—solution
The Characteristics of Some Discourse-organizing Words in the Above Passage • this preceding text check-up • issue anticipating problem-solving processes • problem seeking for solutions • assessment performing evaluation of the problem and providing solutions • solution fulfillment of task
Here I want to spend time examining thisissue. First, I propose to look briefly at the history of interest in the problem, then spend some time on its origins and magnitude before turning to an assessment of the present situation and approaches to its solution. Finally, I want to have a short peek at possible future prospects. The text remains an unintelligible one. ?? The Importance of Lexicalization and Signaling Device • If there is no • lexicalization • 2. If no signaling device • is constructed
The Function of Discourse-organizing Words instructor instructor Discourse-organizing Words (sharing the qualities of words of both closed and open systems) writer reader argument lexicalization
The Size of Vocabulary VOC HOW BIG ISBIG ENOUGH? The training and practice of setting up a WEB is a good way to decide an appropriate size of vocabulary for further and future passage development. voc voc voc
What Is An Unintelligible Passage? • One in which the author does not successfully deploy signaling device. • One in which detect or comprehend what the author’s signaling device is. If the discourse-organizing words are seen as SIGNALS of the author’s intent, then the INABILITY to understand them or misinterpretation of them could cause problems—invalid communication.
Tasks for Teachers and Learners • Is it possible to delimit procedural vocabulary? • What happens if the most common signaling words are not known by learners? • If all languages have text-organizing vocabulary, can the teaching/learning process capitalize on transfer in some ways?
Nurture, Not Torture—Training . Vocabulary Building Writing Ability Reading Comprehension
The Role of Discourse-organizing Words • Represent segments of text • Parcel up phrases and whole sentences Text Discourse-organizing Words Comprehension Prediction Vocabulary Study
The Role of Discourse Organizers in Larger or Longer Text • Representing segments of text • Parceling up phrases and whole sentences • Signaling to the reader what larger textual patterns are being realized
The Illustration of the Function of Discourse Organizers in Larger or Longer Text . Text Discourse-organizing Mechanism Comprehension Top-down Teaching and Learning Bottom-up Prediction Reinforcement
Teaching and Learning Tips for Textual Patterning • TOP-DWON: Once learners are conscious of a larger text-pattern, they can be brought to an awareness of the rich vein of vocabulary • BOTTOM-UP: Learners can bring together in their vocabulary records items that regularly occur in similar textual environments
Register: A set of features of speech or writing characteristic of a particular type of linguistic activity or a particular group when engaging in it (Formal Eng., Technical Eng., Religious Eng. Journalistic Eng. Academic Eng. Etc.) Vocabulary Lexical choice depends on (1) CONTEXT (2) AUDIENCE (3) STYLE 3.7 Register and Signaling Vocabulary
The Employment of Idioms • Restriction of idiom application: It is not always easy to find natural contexts in which to present idioms or idiomatic expressions. • Characteristics of idiom application: Idioms or idiomatic phrases are applied to (1) organize discourse, and (2) signal evaluation.
MODALITY: Category covering indications either of a kind of speech act or of the degree of certainty with which something is said Epistemic Modality 認識情態 Alethic Modality 真勢情態 Root Modality (Deontic Modality) 義務情態 3.8 Modality
Means of Making Modality in English • Modal Verbs • Adjectivals • Participials • Nominal Modal Expressions (be able to, be going to… ) • Modal-like Adjectives (necessary, probable, certain, advisable… ) • Modal-like Adverbs (necessarily, probably, certainly, perhaps, maybe… ) • Parentheticals (I think, I believe, I’m sure… )
Examples of Modal Application • He left at once. (declarative) • Leave at once! (imperative) • He can’t have left. (epistemic) • You can’t h leave now. (deontic) • You must leave. (obligation) • You can leave if you like. (permission) • He has apparently left. (alethic)
Comparison of Neutral and Modalized Sentences • I suppose it’s possible the cat just may have sat on the mat. • The cat sat on the mat.
Difference between Modal Auxiliaries and Modal Expressions The difference plays a part in the expression of politeness. • Modal Auxiliaries: either inherently subjective or objective You must wear evening dress to the reception. • Modal Expressions: predominantly inherently objective You have to wear evening dress to the reception.
Stop Writing. It is necessary for you to stop writing. It may be necessary for you to stop writing It may possibly be necessary for you to stop writing. I imagine it may possibly be necessary for you to stop writing. I would imagine it may possibly be necessary for you to stop writing. INDIRECTNESS LESS POLITE MORE POLITE Relative Politeness and the Number of Modal Expressions (Zhao Caixiang 2002:355)
APPENDIX: MODALITY AND SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD IN ENGLISH (1) • TIPS FOR THE TEACHING OF SUBJUNTIVE MOOD (1) (2) (3) Were
APPENDIX: MODALITY AND SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD IN ENGLISH (2) The interchange of Mandarin MODAL ADVERBS and English MODAL AUXILIARIES in SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD structure. MODAL AUXILIARIES IN ENGLISH SHOULD WOULD COULD MIGHT MODAL ADVERBS IN MANDARIN 早就 老早 應該 也許已經 可能已經 就會 將會
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REFERENCES Zhao Caixiang. “An Analysis of Modality and Politeness”. 第六屆全國功能語言學討論會論文集. 上海: 外語教育 2002 施家煒(譯). Scollon, R.Intercultural Communication (A Discourse Approach)北京: 社會科學文獻. 1995. 王福祥. 話語語言學概論. 北京:外語教學與研究. 1994. 索振羽. 語用學教程. 北京: 北大出版社. 2000.