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DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AND VOCABULARY. Bring a discourse dimention to teach vocabulary Not abandoning vocabulary teaching , instead offering a supplement to conventional vocabulary teaching Using traditional and recent , more communicative approaches in vocabulary teaching and activities.

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slide2

Bring a discoursedimentiontoteachvocabulary

  • Not abandoningvocabularyteaching, insteadoffering a supplementtoconventionalvocabularyteaching
  • Using traditionalandrecent, morecommunicativeapproaches in vocabularyteachingandactivities
lexical cohesion
LexicalCohesion

Repetiton of wordsandthe role playedbycertainbasicsemanticrelationsbetweenwords in creatingtextuality.

Reiteration: eitherrestating an item in a laterpart of thediscoursebydirectrepetitionor else reassertingitsmeaningbyexploitinglexialrelations.

  • Hyponymy (rose-flower/ chair-furniture)
  • Synonymy (commence-begin)
slide4

Reiteration

  • Is extremelycommon in English discourse,
  • Addsnewdimensionsandnuancestomeaning,
  • Servestobuildupincreasinglycomplexcontent.
implications for language pedagogy
Implicationsforlanguagepedagogy
  • Disturbingthelexicalpatterns of textsmayleadtounnaturalnessandinauthenticity at thediscourselevel.
  • Simplificationmaymeanunnaturalamount of repetition.
  • Observinglexicallinks in a textcould be usefulforlanguagelearners in variousways.
  • Lexicalreiterationsupplieslearnerswithmeaningful, controlledpracticeandchancestoimprovetheirtext-creatinganddecodingabilitiesbyprovidingmorevariedcontextsforusingandpractisingvocabulary.
lexis in talk
Lexis in talk
  • Lexicalrelations can be appliedtospoken data as well.
  • Relexicalisation: speakersreiteratetheirownandtakeuponeanother’svocabularyselections in one form oranotherfromturntoturnanddevelopandexpand in doingso.
slide7

Theconnectionbetweendevelopmentandmodificationandreworking of lexicalitemsusedbeforemakestheconversationdevelopcoherently.

  • Inthisway, neitherside is dominant in theconversation, whichmakestheconversation a jointactivity (ethnometodologicalapproachto D.A.).
  • Relexicalisation of someelementsprovidesaggrementandcontributiontorelevance.
slide8

Conversationclasseswheretopicsarepre-set may be verysuitableforthiskind of development.

  • As thetransitionfromsuperordinatestohyponymsandfromsynonymstoantonyms is a commonfeature of conversation, students can be equippedtousethisskillbyregularpractice.
  • As soon as thenecessaryvocabulary is met, languagelearners can be encouragedtousecommunicativevalue of theselexicalitems at an earlystage.
textual aspects of lexical competence
Textualaspects of lexicalcompetence
  • Sometimesourexpectations as to how wordsareconventionallyusedaredisturbedwhenthewritersarrangeusuallexicalrelationsforparticularpurposes of thetext.

Thedepressingfeature of Allen’sdocuments is thepicturewhichemerges of smart but stupidmilitaryplanners, theequivalent of America’smadderfundamentalists, happilyplayingthefoolwiththefuture of the planet.

( TheGuardian, 13 November 1987: 15)

slide10

Thereareotherreadjustments of lexicalitemswhicharevalid in particulartextsonly.

  • Theirinterpretationsmay not correspondtodictionarydefinitions.
  • Thegoodlistener/reader has todecidewhenwordsarebeingused as synonymousorwhenthesesamewordsareusedtostressthedifference in meaning-potential.
slide11

Discourse-specificlexicalrelations can be calledinstantialrelations(J. Ellis, 1966).

  • Althoughtheserelationsfrequentlyfound in texts in alllanguages, theproblemslearnersencounterwithsuchusesareusuallypsychologically-generated.
  • Becausetheycometotextswiththeexpectationsthatthewordshavefixedrelationshipswithoneanother.
slide12

Instantialrelationsoftenpresentimportantstylisticfeatures in text:

    • Creative lexicalusage,
    • Devices of evaluationorirony,
    • Particularfocus.
  • Bydefinition, eachcase has tointerpretedindividually.
  • Theachersshouldraise an awarenessthatsuchuses of typicalvocabularyareoftenreadjusted in individualtexts.
slide14

Here I wanttospendsome time examiningthisissue. First I proposetolookbriefly at thehistory of interest in theproblem, thenspendsome time on itsoriginsandmagnitudebeforeturningto an assessment of thepresentsituationandapproachestoitssolution. Finally, I wanttohave a shortpeek at thepossiblefutureprospects.

Thesewordsstand in a place of segments of text. Theyarecalleddiscourseorganisingwordsbecausetheyorganiseandstructuretheargument.

Thesewordsbuildupexpectationsaboutthewholediscourse.

Theyoperatepredictivelyandretrospectively.

the characteristics of some discourse organizing words in the passage above
The Characteristics of Some Discourse-organizing Words in the PassageAbove
  • this preceding text check-up
  • issue anticipating problem-solving processes
  • problem  seeking for solutions
  • assessment  performing evaluation of the problem and providing solutions
  • solution  fulfillment of task
slide16

How manysuchwordsarethere in a languagelike English?

  • Winter (1977-78) vocabulary 3
  • Francis (1986) anaphoricnouns
  • Jordan (1984) vocabularyindex
signalling larger textual patterns
Signallinglargertextualpatterns
  • Besidesrepresentingsegments of textandparcellingupphrases, discourseorganisingwordssignaltoreaderwhatlargertextualpatternsarebeingreliased.
  • E.g.
    • Problem-solutionpattern
    • Claim-counterclaimpattern(Hypothetical-real)
slide18

Thewords in yellowpredict (solutionin theheadline, concern) andreinforce (solution, problem) the problem-solutionpattern.

discourse organising words for problem solution pattern
Discourseorganisingwordsfor problem-solutionpattern

SeeJordan’s (1984) wordlistforclaim-counterclaimpattern p. 80

register and signalling vocabulary
Registerandsignallingvocabulary
  • Register is closelyrelatedwithlexicalselection.
  • Lexicalchoicedepends on
    • Context (textbook, magazine, newsreport)
    • Audience (cultured, educated, readers of popular press)
    • Writtenorspokenstyle
  • Idiomsaregoodmetaphorsfortextualsegments.
the employment of idioms
The Employment of Idioms
  • Restriction of idiom application:

 It is not always easy to find natural

contexts in which to present idioms or

idiomatic expressions.

  • Characteristics of idiom application:

 Idioms or idiomatic phrases are applied to (1) organize discourse, and

(2) signal evaluation.

modality
Modality
  • Modality is generallythoughttobelongtoclosedclass of modalverbs (must, may, can, will, etc.) andtreated as part of thegrammar.
  • However, thereare a lot of words (nouns, verbs, adverbsandadjectives)havingthesameorsimilarmeaniningswiththemodalverbs.

E.g. Appear, assume, doubt, look as if, actually, certainly, possiblyandnounsandadjectivesrelatedtothem.

means of making modality in english
Means of Making Modality in English
  • Modal Verbs
  • Adjectivals
  • Participials
  • Nominal Modal Expressions (be able to, be going to… )
  • Modal-like Adjectives (necessary, probable, certain, advisable… )
  • Modal-like Adverbs (necessarily, probably, certainly, perhaps, maybe… )
  • Parentheticals (I think, I believe, I’m sure… )
comparison of neutral and modalized sentences
Comparison of Neutral and Modalized Sentences
  • I suppose it’s possible the cat just may have sat on the mat.
  • The cat sat on the mat.
slide25

Thesemodalitywordscarryimportantinformationandareconcernedwithassertion, tentativeness, commitment, detachmentandotherimportantaspects of interpersonalmeaning.

  • Discourseanalystshavepresentedthatmodality is crucial in thecreation of discourse.
  • Holmes (1988) showsthatthelargervocabulary of modallexicalitems is oftenunder-presented in theteachingmaterials.
tasks for teachers and learners
Tasks for Teachers and Learners
  • Is it possible to delimit procedural vocabulary?
  • What happens if the most common signaling words are not known by learners?
  • If all languages have text-organizing vocabulary, can the teaching/learning process capitalize on transfer in some ways?