Hapsburgs and the 30 Years War By Miri Taylor and Paige Organick
The 30 Years War (1618-1648) • During the war, Hapsburgs opposed Danish, Dutch, and most of all Sweden and France. • Besides political issues, religious issues involving Catholics (Hapsburgs), Lutherans, and Calvinists. • There were four main phases of the war: the Bohemian, the Danish, the Swedish, and the French.
What did the Hapsburgs hope to accomplish in the war? • Wanted a Counter-Reformation • Wanted to get rid of the Peace of Augsburg • Wipe out Protestants in central Europe • Total rule over all of Holy Roman Empire and wanted Catholicism to be the only religion. • Hapsburgs wanted power over Baltic Sea to get power over Denmark and Sweden, and cut off Dutch trade
Involvement in the War Action Were the action justified? • 1618: War started when Ferdinand got the Bohemian throne. He was a Catholic, and wanted to make sure everyone else was too. • Once Ferdinand was king of Bohemia, he revoked the religious freedoms of the Bohemian Protestants. • Yes - He thought he was doing the right thing and helping people who God would otherwise not like • Yes – thought he was encouraging them to go back to being Catholic
Involvement in the War Action Was the action justified? • 1619: Ferdinand (II) becomes the Holy Roman Emperor - Bohemians didn't like this. They named Frederick V, a Calvinist, as their overlord • War became more than just about the King. Spain, Maximilian of Bavaria, and John George I of Saxony (Lutheran) all were allies with the Hapsburgs. Spain even sent troops • June 10, 1619: Mansfeldt and Bohemian rebels are defeated by the Habsburgs at the Battle of Zablati. • Ferdinand was justified – he thought he could make the biggest difference as the HRE • Yes – there is no shame in accepting help • Yes – if you want to convert a lot of people to Catholicism, you need to defeat them, proving that God is in your favor
Involvement in the War Action Was the action justified? • October 24, 1619: Battle of Ulmkirchen - Hapsburg army vs. Bohemian army. Hapsburgs win • January 16, 1620: Bethlen(Prince of Hungary) makes peace with Habsburgs - Bethlen gets better part of the deal • By 1622: Ferdinand re-Catholicized Bohemia, and conquered Palatinate • Yes – Hapsburgs just wanted to convert more people, and a good way to do that (17th century) is to conquer people in Battle • Yes – Peace is always good – lives are saved and economy gets better • Yes – Ferdinand II thought he was doing right thing. Conquered Palatinate, figured that the more people he converted back to Catholicism the better
Involvement in the War Action Was that action justified? • 1629: Ferdinand issued Edict of Restitution (reasserted Catholic safeguards of the Peace of Augsburg, reaffirmed that Calvinism was illegal, and wanted all Lutherans to return the church lands they had got since 1552) • August 8, 1645 The Transylvanians make peace with the Hapsburgs • May 29,1646: The Habsburgs gave their rights over to the Upper and Lower Alsace • Yes – thought he was doing the right thing • Yes – it’s usually good to make peace with an enemy • Yes – the Hapsburgs recognized defeat, and accepted it when the time came
Peace of Westphalia • 1648-Peace of Westphalia ended the war • Calvinism recognized officially, ended in protestant favor • Hapsburgs got rule in Bohemia back • Treaty gave Switzerland and Dutch Republic independence • Sweden got Pomerania, France got part of Alsace • Hapsburg emperor's hope of Catholic faith throughout HRE failed, fragmented empire into independent states • Peace for religion, no more war, from here on out.
What did the Hapsburgs actually accomplish? • Didn't rule all of HRE. Empire split into independent states. Neutral government in Germany • Hapsburgs no longer dominated Europe. • Emperor required to get approval for any laws, taxes, or foreign agreements before doing such. • Protestants allowed to keep land gained before 1624. • France came out with the most power in the end. Authority over Germany became great and the Holy Roman Empire rule in Germany lessened. France's navy power increased.
Works Cited • http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h25-war.html • http://www.thecaveonline.com/APEH/thirtyyearswar.html • http://history-world.org/The%20Thirty%20Years'%20War.htm • http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?gtrack=pthc&ParagraphID=hlz#hlz