270 likes | 480 Views
The Thirty Years War. 1618-1648. Tensions in the Holy Roman Empire. Decentralized – 360 autonomous political entities Ecclesiastical principalities (archbishoprics, abbeys) The Peace of Augsburg 1555 Did not allow for Calvinism Failed to stop the spread of Lutheranism
E N D
The Thirty Years War 1618-1648
Tensions in the Holy Roman Empire • Decentralized – • 360 autonomous political entities • Ecclesiastical principalities (archbishoprics, abbeys) • The Peace of Augsburg 1555 • Did not allow for Calvinism • Failed to stop the spread of Lutheranism • Could not enforce ‘Ecclesiastical Reservation’ • Protestant infighting • It is a mess!!!
Setting the Scene • 1609 – Frederick IV, Elector Palatine, formed a Protestant Defensive alliance • 1609 – Maximilian, duke of Bavaria, forms the Catholic League
Thirty Years’ War – Four Phases • Bohemian Period (1618-25) • Danish Period (1625-29) • Swedish period (1629-35) • French Period (1635-48)
Bohemian Period • 1618 – Ferdinand II, a Hapsburg, takes the throne of Bohemia and tries to make it more Catholic by revoking all Bohemian Protestant rights • The Protestant nobility does not like this and throws Ferdinand II’s supporters out of a 5-story window ‘Defenestration of Prauge’ • 1619 – Ferdinand II becomes H.R.E. • Bohemian Protestants declared Frederick V, Calvinist Elector Palatine, as their overlord
Bohemian Period cont’d • Military supremacy for Ferdinand II • Spain sends troops • Allies with Maximilian’s Catholic League • Politically motivated Protestant nobles join to gain land • The Palatinate is conquered • Other regions began to fear that Ferdinand II was attempting to re-conquer the H.R.E. and turn it into a Catholic Empire.
Danish Period • Danish King, Christian IV, uses religious conflict as an excuse to extend his control in the H.R.E. • 1626 He enters Germany with his army • Maximilian humiliates Christian IV forcing him to withdraw • Maximilian grows to powerful for Ferdinand’s comfort – can’t be controlled • Ferdinand hires a protestant mercenary Wallenstein • By 1628 Wallenstein has crushed all Protestant opposition but is now outside of Ferdinand’s control.
Danish Period cont’d • 1629 - Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution • Reaffirmed that Calvinism was illegal • Lutherans give back all confiscated church land • Completely unrealistic • Got countries outside of the H.R.E. afraid that Ferdinand might united the H.R.E.
Swedish Period • Sweden – unified Lutheran nation led by Gustavus Adolphus • Financially supported by French minister Cardinal Richelieu • Adolphus won a key victory in 1630 at Breitenfeld • Ferdinand II had Wallenstein, who had been trying to strike bargains with the Protestants, assassinated • Peace of Prague – German protestant states reach an agreement with Ferdinand II but Sweden won’t join in.
French Period • French enter the war in 1635 • See this as an attempt to take advantage of the weakened Hapsburgs • War drags on for 13 more years • Ferdinand realizes he cannot win
Treaty of Westphalia • With the defeat of the Catholics in Germany, the principles of the Peace of Augsburg were reasserted, but with Calvinists included. • The pope rejected the treaty but this was ignored. • The Netherlands gained their independence from the Spanish. • The Swiss Confederation was recognized. • Over three hundred German states were to become independent from the Holy Roman Emperor. Overall, the defeat of the Catholics was due to the Calvinists in France.
Treaty cont’d • After 1648, warfare, thought often containing religious elements, wouldn't be executed primarily for religious goals. • The Catholic crusade to reunite Europe failed, largely due to the efforts of the Calvinists. • The religious distribution of Europe has not changed significantly since 1648. • Nobles, resisting the increasing power of the state, usually dominated the struggle. • France, then Germany, fell apart due to the wars, • France was reunited in the 17th century, Germany was not.
Aftermath of the Treaty of Westphalia (Rise of Nationalism) • John Locke (1632-1704) political power rests with the people • American and French Revolutions • Permanent national militaries • Rise of nationalism; • common identity (language, culture, customs, etc.) • Belief in popular sovereignty • Concept of self-determination led to new states by fragmenting empires OR uniting smaller units • Industrial revolution reinforced nationalism; mass production; & gap between Europe and the rest of the world