Chapter 9 Section2 The Spread of Islam. Main Idea . After Muhammad’s death, Islam spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula, shaping a major empire within 100 years. While the empire eventually broke into smaller parts, Islam continued to spread . Key Terms.
The Spread of Islam
There was deep conflict within the Muslim leadership. The Sunnis were for Abu Bakr and the Shia were for Ali.
In general, Muslims allowed considerable religious freedom. They allowed Christians and Jews People of the Book to practice their religion. Non-Muslims did have to pay heavy taxes and endured some restrictions on their daily lives. For example in some places, Muslims required synagogues to be built underground as a symbol of Judaism's inferior status.
Arab Muslims became a ruling class with power and privilege unavailable to those they conquered.This action conflicted with the strong Muslim ideal of equality. The wars over the succession were also deeply upsetting to many of the faithful. These Muslims were unhappy with the emphasis some placed on political ambition.
The Abbasids relocated the capital of the caliphate. They chose Baghdad, on the Tigris River, in what is now Iraq.In their new capital, the rulers lived in splendor. The Abbasids adopted a Persian style of government in which they cut themselves off from the people. In the throne room, for example, the caliph was hidden behind a beautiful screen so that he could not be seen. The Abbasids also relied on Persian government officials. Under the Abbasid dynasty, the nature of Islam changed also.
Trade was one way that Islam spread. As Muslim trader journeyed from end to end of the caliphate, an exchange in both goods and information occurred. The exchange helped bring Islam to places such as West Africa and Southeast Asia.
The Mongols destroyed the city and killed the Abbasid caliph. The caliphate was finished.