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Chapter 9 Section2 The Spread of Islam. Main Idea . After Muhammad’s death, Islam spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula, shaping a major empire within 100 years. While the empire eventually broke into smaller parts, Islam continued to spread . Key Terms.

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Chapter 9 Section2

The Spread of Islam

main idea
Main Idea
  • After Muhammad’s death, Islam spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula, shaping a major empire within 100 years. While the empire eventually broke into smaller parts, Islam continued to spread.
key terms
Key Terms
  • Abu Bakr: (c. 573–634) First Muslim caliph; as a close companion and successor to Muhammad, he unified the restive Bedouin tribes of central Arabia into a strong fighting force that he led into Iraq and Syria.
  • Caliph:"successorto the Prophet"; title given to the political and religious leader of Muslims
  • Caliphate: area ruled by a caliph
  • Umayyad:(661–750) first ruling dynasty over the Muslim Caliphate
  • Sunnis:"peoplewho follow the Sunna (way of the Prophet)"; the largest branch of Islam; believers accepted the first four caliphs as rightful successors of Muhammad
keyterms
KeyTerms
  • Shia: a branch of Islam whose adherents believe that the caliphate must go to a descendent of Muhammad— particularly a member of the family of Ali
  • Sufis: a branch of Islam emphasizing a personal, mystical connection with God
  • Abbasid: dynasty that overthrew the Umayyad dynasty to rule the Muslim caliphate from 750 to 1258; for 150 years the Abbasids maintained the unity of the caliphate and Islamic culture and civilization flourished.
  • Harun al-Rashid: (c. 766–809) Fifth Abbasid caliph (ruled 786 to 809); under his rule, the Abbasid dynasty reached its height and Islamic culture experienced a flowering.
how did islam evolve after muhammad s death
How did Islam evolve after Muhammad’s death?
  • After Muhammad’s death, his successors built and empire in less than ten years. Islam expanded and the empire flourished.
who were the caliphs and what did they accomplish after muhammad s death
Who were the caliphs, and what did they accomplish after Muhammad's death?
  • The Caliphs were appointed successors who were leaders in the Muslim community. In the decade after Muhammad’s death, the caliphs built up Arab fighting forces and reunified Arabia. Caliph, Abu Bakr and his successor led their army north, conquering many neighboring empires. In just 10 years after Muhammad’s death, his followers had created an empire.
who were the sunnis and the shia
Who were the Sunnis and the Shia?

  There was deep conflict within the Muslim leadership. The Sunnis were for Abu Bakr and the Shia were for Ali.

what do you think later caliphs might do with their armies
What do you think later caliphs might do with their armies?
  • I would image that they would continue to do what they do. I’m sure they would built up a string army to try to expand and prosper.
what were key events of the umayyad dynasty
What were key events of the Umayyad Dynasty?
  • Under the Umayyad caliphs, Muslim rule spread.
  • Internal problems weakened the Umayyads,though, and led to their fall.
  • Following the death of Husayn, the Umayyads strengthened their rule over the caliphate. Steps they took to strengthen their rule included establishing Arabic as the official language and making coinage uniform throughout the empire.
  • They also began the first great work of Islamic architecture the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
  • Armies also extended the caliphate's borders To the east, Muslim armies conquered territory all the way to the borders of China and the Indus River Valley.
what was the result of the battle of tours
What was the result of the Battle of Tours?
  • The Muslim forces lost and this caused the empire to not be able to expand past Spain (present day France). This is probably why Islam is not as predominate in most European countries.
how did the umayyads treat the jews and christians they conquered
How did the Umayyads treat the Jews and Christians they conquered?

In general, Muslims allowed considerable religious freedom. They allowed Christians and Jews People of the Book to practice their religion. Non-Muslims did have to pay heavy taxes and endured some restrictions on their daily lives. For example in some places, Muslims required synagogues to be built underground as a symbol of Judaism's inferior status.

why were some muslims unhappy with the umayyad government
Why were some Muslims unhappy with the Umayyad government?

Arab Muslims became a ruling class with power and privilege unavailable to those they conquered.This action conflicted with the strong Muslim ideal of equality. The wars over the succession were also deeply upsetting to many of the faithful. These Muslims were unhappy with the emphasis some placed on political ambition.

judge the use of armed forces in building the caliphate
Judge the use of armed forces in building the caliphate.
  • Personally I am very against violence, so I would judge it as bad. But the use of armed forced help build the caliphate and made is expand and grow to what it was.
what changes occurred under the abbasid dynasty
What changes occurred under the Abbasid dynasty?

The Abbasids relocated the capital of the caliphate. They chose Baghdad, on the Tigris River, in what is now Iraq.In their new capital, the rulers lived in splendor. The Abbasids adopted a Persian style of government in which they cut themselves off from the people. In the throne room, for example, the caliph was hidden behind a beautiful screen so that he could not be seen. The Abbasids also relied on Persian government officials. Under the Abbasid dynasty, the nature of Islam changed also.

what were some characteristics of abbasid caliphs
What were some characteristics of Abbasid caliphs?
  • They were very just and fair rulers. They opened up Islam to everyone and encouraged people to join.
how did islam spread to west africa and southeast asia
How did Islam Spread to West Africa and Southeast Asia?

Trade was one way that Islam spread. As Muslim trader journeyed from end to end of the caliphate, an exchange in both goods and information occurred. The exchange helped bring Islam to places such as West Africa and Southeast Asia.

what led to the end of the caliphate s unity
What led to the end of the caliphate’s unity?

The Mongols destroyed the city and killed the Abbasid caliph. The caliphate was finished.

what allowed the fatimids to become more powerful than the abbasids
What allowed the Fatimids to become more powerful than the Abbasids?
  • The Fatimids controlled the Mediterranean and Red seas, which disrupted Abbasid trade. As a result, the Fatimids were soon richer and more powerful than the Abbasids
what groups challenged the rule of the caliph
What groups challenged the rule of the caliph?
  • Europeans( Christians)
  • Fatimids
  • Seljuk Turks
  • Mamluks and Mongols