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The Spread of Islam

The Spread of Islam

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The Spread of Islam

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Presentation Transcript

  1. The Spread of Islam

  2. I. Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam • 632: Muh. Died • Abu Bakr chosen as successor • Caliph = “successor of the Prophet”

  3. A. “Rightly Guided” Caliphs • Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, & Ali • All knew Muh. • Rule = caliphate • Abu Bakr promised to uphold what Muh. stood for • Some abandoned Islam • “jihad” (striving in the path of God) • Islam expanded • 634: Abu Bakr died & Muslim state controlled all of Arabia

  4. Umar (2nd caliph) • Conquered Syria & lower Egypt

  5. Uthman & Ali cont’d to expand Muslim territory • 750: stretched 6,000 mi.

  6. Arab policy toward conquered peoples made conquests easier • More tolerant than other conquerors • Christians & Jews converted or paid tribute • w/in 100 yrs. of Muh’s death

  7. Attempt to take Const. failed • 711: Berbers (N.Af followers) invaded Spain led by Tariq (against Visigoths) • Jabal Tariq (“Mtn. of Tariq”) • Spain = easy conquest • 732: Battle of Tours • Stopped advance of Moors into Euro.

  8. B. Reasons for Success • 1. Victories = Allah’s support • Great inspiration & morale from faith • 2. Muslim armies were well-disciplined & commanded • 3. people were persecuted under Byz. rule

  9. II. Internal Conflict Creates Crisis • 656: Uthman was murdered (civil war) • Ali (Muh’s cousin & son-in-law) became next caliph • 661: Muawiya (Uthman’s cousin) • Accused Ali of protecting Uthman’s assassins • Ali & Muawiya went to war • Ali was assassinated (Muawiya took power)

  10. Umayyads came to power • Moved Muslim capital to Damascus • Helped control conquered lands • Abandoned the “simple” life…surrounded themselves w/wealth • Helped give rise to a division in the umma

  11. A. Division in the Umma • Most accepted Umayyads’ rule • Shi’at Ali (“party of Ali”) (Shi’a) • caliph (imam) had to be descendent of the Prophet Muh. • 10% of Umma • Sunni • 90% of Umma • Est. in 661 (Muawiya)

  12. 750: rebels overthrew Umayyads • Abbasids took control

  13. III. Islamic Control Spreads • Abbasids murdered Umayyads • Abd al-Rahman escaped to Spain to est. a caliphate • Spain = conquered by Muslims (N.Af) • 732: Muslims advanced w/in 200 mi. of Paris – stopped at Battle of Tours

  14. A. Abbasids Consolidate Power • 762: capital moved to Baghdad • Trade routes • Developed strong bureaucracy • Treasury • Army • Diplomats • Supported by taxes

  15. B. Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands • Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258) • Failed to maintain control • Independent Muslim states sprang up • Fatimid caliphate • Formed by Shi’a • Claimed descent from Muh’s daughter Fatima • Fatimids & smaller states were still connected thru religion, language, & trade

  16. C. Muslim Trade Network • Med. Sea & Indian Ocean • Engaged in sea trade w/world • Silk Roads • Single language