The Spread of Islam Section 3
7.2.4 • Discuss the expansion of Muslim rule through military conquests and treaties, emphasizing the cultural blending within Muslim civilization and the spread and acceptance of Islam and the Arabic language.
Background Knowledge • By the time Muhammad died, most people on the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. • Expansion of Islam and Muslim rule • Islam in the world today
Muslim Expansion • The first was a wave of conquests by Arab armies. • The second was a series of conquests by non-Arab groups that had adopted Islam. • the conquered or converted peoples • The final phase was the peaceful spread of Islam by merchants and missionaries.
a new leader to win back the loyalty of Arab tribes • who had broken away. • Abu Bakr,was given the title of caliph, or successor • regain control of the Arabian Peninsula
The next caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab • Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Syria. Then, Persia and Egypt.
Conquests continued under other caliphs • Afghanistan and India and across North Africa and into Spain • Battle of Tours in 732 • 100 years the Muslims had built an vast empire
Reasons for Success The decline of the Byzantine and Persian empires. • Years of warfare had left these empires weak and vulnerable. • The skill of Arab armies. • expert soldiers on horseback • struck quickly and with deadly force in harsh desert environments
Reasons for Success • jihad, or “holy struggle.”striving hard in God’s cause. Sometimes it means a person’s internal struggle to live by Muslim principles. But it can also mean waging war to spread the Islamic faith.
Religious Tolerance • The Arabs generally allowed people to practice their own customs and beliefs. • the Torah and the Bible are sacred books • Before capturing Damascus, the Arab general Khalid ibn al-Walidmade the following promise: • Jews and Christians were generally respected as “People of the Book.” did not have the same legal status, pay a special tax. But they were allowed to practice their own faith and follow their own laws.
Religious Tolerance • A final factor in the Muslims’ success was the appeal of Islam itself. • Islam offered followers a direct path to God and salvation. • It emphasized the equality of all believers, regardless of race, sex, class, or wealth. • no priestly class monitoring people’s behavior. • follow the Five Pillars.
Conquests by Non-Arab Peoples • The second phase, was a result of conquests by non-Arab peoples • Converts who took Islam back to their homelands and lands that they conquered • The most successful of these groups were the Turks and the Mongols.
Conquests by Non-Arab Peoples • The Turks from Central Asian migrated into Muslim lands in the 900s. • These fierce soldiers entered the service of Muslim armies • The Seljuks, spread Islam into Central Asia. • The Ottomans, created a large Muslim empire starting in the 1400s. • conquered Constantinople and carried Islam into southeastern Europe
Conquests by Non-Arab Peoples • The Mongols swept into Muslim lands from Asia in the 1200s. • After adopting Islam, they took Islam into Central Asia and western China. • Muslim Mongols also invaded India and converted many Hindus to Islam.
Merchants and Missionaries • Southeast Asia, and West Africa experienced the third peaceful phase in the spread of Islam • Muslim merchants they took their faith to new lands. • traveled east from India by ship into Malaysia and Indonesia • traveled south in camel caravans from North Africa into the lands beyond the Sahara
Merchants and Missionaries • Missionaries often accompanied the traders to spread the word of God. • They converted many Africans and Southeast Asians to Islam.
Islam Today • The spread of Islam is still going on today. Islam is the religion of many people around the world.
The Growth of Modern Islam • Islam is the world’s second-largest religion after Christianity. • More than one billion people • one fifth of the global population • fewer than 20 percent of Muslims are Arabs • Nearly half live in South and Southeast Asia • Indonesia has the largest Muslim population • followed by Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India • Several million Muslims live in the United States
Divisions in Islam • The Sunnis are the majority Islamic sect,making up about 85 percent of all Muslims. • The Shiites form the largest minority Islamic sect.
Divisions in Islam • Some religious differences separate the two groups, but the origins of the split are political.
Divisions in Islam • After Muhammad’s death, most Arabs believed that a caliph should be chosen by leaders of the Muslim community. • This majority group, which supported Abu Bakr, became known as the Sunnis. • Caliph is a leader, not a religious authority.
Divisions in Islam • Some followers, believed that only Muhammad’s relatives should become caliph. • The Shiites, felt his relatives were inspired by God. • They favored Muhammad’s cousin and closest relative, Ali ibn Abu Talib. • Ali did become caliph later, but the split between Sunnis and Shiites continued.
Divisions in Islam • Despite this division, Muslims around the world are united in their basic beliefs. They worship one God. They revere the word of God as revealed to Muhammad in the Qur’an. And they accept the Five Pillars as guidelines to a proper life.