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The Spread of Islam. What happened after the death of the prophet?. The First Four Caliphs. What is a caliph ? Caliph or “deputy” refers to the Islamic rulers after the death of Muhammad. Abu-Bakr is the first Caliph (632-634 C.E.). The first four Caliphs expand the Islamic empire.

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the spread of islam

The Spread of Islam

What happened after the death of the prophet?

the first four caliphs
The First Four Caliphs
  • What is a caliph?
  • Caliph or “deputy” refers to the Islamic rulers after the death of Muhammad.
  • Abu-Bakr is the first Caliph (632-634 C.E.).
  • The first four Caliphs expand the Islamic empire.
  • Caliphs have both religious and civil authority.
abu bakr the first caliph 632 634 c e
Abu-Bakr, the First Caliph (632-634 C.E.)
  • Known as the Sahabah- senior companion.
  • Father-in-law of Muhammad.
  • Later known as Al-Siddiq(The Truthful).
  • Kept recently converted Muslims from dispersing.
  • Extended Islamic empire to the Red Sea.
umar ibn al khattab the second caliph 634 644 c e
Umaribn al-Khattab, the Second Caliph (634-644 C.E.)
  • Succeeded Abu Bakr on August 23, 634 C.E.
  • Expanded Islamic empire to include the Sassanid Persian Empire and more than two thirds of the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • Executed firm political and administrative control.
  • Major conquests include: Syria, Egypt, Damascus, and Jerusalem.
uthman ibn affan the third caliph 644 656 c e
UthmanibnAffan, the Third Caliph (644-656 C.E.)
  • Best known for forming the committee which compiled the basic text of the Qur’an as it exists today.
  • Expanded empire into Fars (present-day Iran), Khorasan (present-day Afghanistan) and Armenia.
ali ibn abi talib the fourth caliph 656 661 c e
Ali ibnAbiTalib, the Fourth Caliph (656-661 C.E.)
  • Initially refused role of Caliph.
  • Dismissed several provincial governors, some of whom were related to Uthman.
  • Moved capital from Medina to Kufa.
  • Caliphate (position and reign of the Caliph) coincided with the First Fitna- a Muslim civil war over who had the legitimate right to the caliphate.
conquest after the first fitna
Conquest after the First Fitna
  • Tunisia, 661 C.E.
  • Iberian Peninsula, except for the northern third, 711 C.E.
  • Sind, the southern Indus Valley, 711 C.E.
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vocabulary review
Vocabulary Review
  • Caliph: “deputy”, have religious and civil authority.
  • Sahabah: senior companion.
  • Al-Siddiq: The Truthful.
  • Qur’an (Koran): holy scripture of Islam.
  • Caliphate: position and reign of the Caliph.
  • First Fitna: a Muslim civil war over who had the legitimate right to the caliphate.