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Hydrological and Nutrient Controls on the Structure and Function of Southern African Savannas: A Multi-scale Approach PowerPoint Presentation
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Hydrological and Nutrient Controls on the Structure and Function of Southern African Savannas: A Multi-scale Approach. J.D. Albertson, K.K. Caylor, Paolo D’Odorico, Christelle Hély, Greg Okin,

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slide1

Hydrological and Nutrient Controls on the Structure and Function of Southern African Savannas: A Multi-scale Approach

J.D. Albertson, K.K. Caylor, Paolo D’Odorico,

Christelle Hély, Greg Okin,

S.A. Macko, Natalie Mladenov, Lydia Ries, Susan Ringrose, T.M. Scanlon, H.H. Shugart, R.J. Swap, Matt Therrell,

Lixin Wang and

Robert Washington-Allen

slide2

Kalahari Transect

  • Wet and dry season field campaigns for basic ecological process and detailed structural measurements of vegetation
slide3

Kalahari Transect

  • Wet and dry season field campaigns for basic ecological process and detailed structural measurements of vegetation
  • Detailed soil characterizations
slide4

Kalahari Transect

  • Wet and dry season field campaigns for basic ecological process and detailed structural measurements of vegetation
  • Detailed soil characterizations
  • Instrumented long-term physical data records
slide5

Kalahari Transect

  • Wet and dry season field campaigns for basic ecological process and detailed structural measurements of vegetation
  • Detailed soil characterizations
  • Instrumented long-term physical data records
  • Field fertilization experiments with phosphorus and nitrogen and stable isotope analysis in experimental and spatially distributed contexts
slide6

IGBP Kalahari Transect

Strong rainfall gradient, seasonal climate

Uniform sandy soils – ‘Kalahari sands’

Heterogeneous vegetation; tree, shrub and grass in woodland, savanna, and shrubland mixtures.

High net plant productivity, widespread biomass burning, high carbon turnover

slide14

Plant interactions

dominate pattern

Landscape interactions

dominate pattern

Spatial Variation in NDVI at Different Spatial Scales

slide16

Grass Cover

Decreasing

Tree Cover

More Southerly and Drier

Vegetation structural characteristics along the Kalahari Transect

slide17

Light

TRADE-OFFS

Moisture

slide19

Dispersed

Clumped

Depends on the Prior History

slide20

necessarily

is not equivalent to

v

a landscape vegetation model

Patch

Leaf

Multi-Patch

Structure

A Landscape Vegetation Model
slide23

Live

Non-woody

Live

Tree

Leaves

Dead

Non-woody

Dead

Tree

Leaves

slide24

Fine-leaved

nutrient-rich savannas

Broad-leaved

nutrient-poor savannas

Sankaran et al. 2005 Nature 438:846-849

slide25

Rationale for a Key Role of Nutrient Availability at the Ecosystem Level

Water Limitation

Nutrient Limitation

Scanlon et al. 2003 RSE

slide33

Nitrogen does not appear to be a limiting nutrient in these systems, at least for grasses.

Dry End

Wet End

Wang et al. Climatic Change in revision

slide35

necessarily

is not equivalent to

v

slide37

or

Patch

Leaf

Regional Emissions

to the Atmosphere

Multi-Patch

Structure

slide39

Domestic

Industrial

Wildfires

Along with wildfires, there are other significant sources of emissions to the atmosphere.

slide40

Domestic

Industrial

Wildfires

We have some understanding of the contribution of these different sources.

slide41

Transport

Domestic

Industrial

Wildfires

Regional Emissions

Deposition