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  1. Post-Modernism

  2. World War II and its Aftermath • The Holocaust • Post War America • The AbsurdExistentialism: Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert CamusTheater of the Absurd: Samuel Beckett, Peter Weiss • The Existential Hero:Ralph Ellison’s The Invisible ManJoseph Heller’s Catch-22

  3. The Post-war Era • New York: European artists fleeing Europe congregated in N.Y. • The New York SchoolAbstract Expressionism:Jackson PollockMark Rothko

  4. Pop Art, Minimalism, Avant-garde • Pop art: irreverence to tradition: beer cans, flags • Andy Warhol: Coca-Cola, Campbell’s Soup • Robert Rauschenberg’s “combine paintings” • “Minimalism” in sculptureDonald Judd • Performance Art: Theatrical presentations with mixed visual arts and mediaJoseph BeuysMartha Graham’s modern art school

  5. Sculpture • Henry Moore: massive human forms. Influenced by Aztec and Mayan sculpturesThe Recumbent Figure • Alexander Calder’s mobiles • David Smith: constructed metal sculpture • Louise Nevelson: used discarded objects and materials: assemblage

  6. Modern Architecture • Mies van der Rohe’s International Style: ChicagoSeagram Building • Le Corbusier: Chandigarh in PunjabRonchamp ChapelNotre-Dame-du Haut • Frank Lloyd WrightSolomon R. Guggenheim Museum • Jörn UtzonOpera House, Sydney, Australia

  7. Music/Avant-garde • Pierre Boulez: total serialism • Electronic music: synthesizers, electronic instruments and computers • Milton Babbitt: synthesizer • Karlheinz Stockhausen • John Cage: aleatory music

  8. Music/Pop • Leonard BernsteinCandideWest Side Story • Rock-and-rollElvisThe Beatles • Rhythm and Blues/SoulThe civil rights movement

  9. Post-Modernism • Skepticism toward any representation of reality that claimed to be universal or objective • Focus on the “construction of reality” through language and symbol • Emphasis on the local and particular rather than the universal • In the arts, a tendency toward parody, pastiche, and an eclectic mixture of styles

  10. Post-Modern Architecture • Robert Venturi • Renzo Piano and Richard RogersThe Pompidou Center in Paris • Charles MoorePiazza d’Italia in New Orleans • Michael GravesPortland Services Building, Oregon

  11. Minimalism in Music • Philip Glass: operaEinstein on the Beach • John Adams: operaNixon in ChinaThe Death of Klinghoffer

  12. Visual Arts • Superrealism • Chuck Close: photographic image in paint • Duane Hanson: sculpted life-sized humans • Earth ArtRobert Smithson’s Spiral Jetty • Christo, Jeanne-Claude • Judy Pfaff: installation art

  13. New Fiction • Meta-fiction: stories about stories, fiction about fiction • John BarthThe Sot-Weed Factor • Thomas PynchonGravity’s Rainbow • Jorge Luis BorgesTlön, Uqbar, Orbis, Tertius

  14. Magic Realism in Fiction • Gabriel García MárquezOne Hundred Years of Solitude • Carlos Fuentes • Julio Cortázar • Mario Vargas Llosa

  15. Liberated Voices • Revision of the canon • Africa:Novelist Chinua Achebe (Nigerian)Things Fall Apart

  16. Liberated Voices USA • Artist Romare Bearden: photomontage • Dancer-choreographer Alvin Ailey: jazz and soul music Cry • Poet Gwendolyn Brooks • Playwright August Wilson: Fences • Artist Judy Chicago: The Dinner Party • Novelist Toni Morrison: Beloved • Poet Denise Levertov: Mind • Architect Maya Lin: Vietnam War Memorial

  17. AIDS • The NAMES project • John Corigliano “AIDS Symphony” • Tony Kushner: Angels in America

  18. A New Century • 9/11 The Twin Towers • Arata Ozaki: Team Disney Building • Renzo Piano: Osaka Airport, Japan • Frank Gehry: Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain • “Hip-hop”, rap • Nam June Paik, video art • Painter Ma Liuming Baby 5 • Architect Daniel Libeskind: Ground Zero