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Post-Modernism. World War II and its Aftermath. The Holocaust Post-War America Existentialism: Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus The Absurd Theater of the Absurd: Samuel Beckett, Peter Weiss The Existential Hero: Ralph Ellison’s The Invisible Man, Joseph Heller’s Catch-22. The Post-War Era.

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world war ii and its aftermath
World War II and its Aftermath
  • The Holocaust
  • Post-War America
  • Existentialism: Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus
  • The Absurd
  • Theater of the Absurd: Samuel Beckett, Peter Weiss
  • The Existential Hero: Ralph Ellison’s The Invisible Man, Joseph Heller’s Catch-22
the post war era
The Post-War Era
  • New York: European artists fleeing Europe congregated in N.Y.
  • The New York School, Abstract Expressionism: Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm: Number 30 (fig. 23.2) and Mark Rothko, Red, Brown, and Black (fig.23.5)
pop art minimalism avant garde
Pop Art, Minimalism, Avant-garde
  • Pop art – irreverence to tradition: beer cans, flags, advertisements, media
  • Andy Warhol: Coca-Cola, Campbell’s Soup, movie stars (Marilyn Diptych – fig. 23.15)
  • Robert Rauschenberg’s “combine paintings”
  • “Minimalism” in sculpture: Donald Judd, Untitled (fig.23.19)
  • Performance Art – theatrical presentations with mixed visual arts and media: “Happenings,”,Martha Graham’s modern art school
  • Henry Moore: massive human forms. Influenced by Aztec and Mayan sculpturesThe Recumbent Figure (fig. 21.20)
  • Alexander Calder’s mobiles (fig. 23.11)
  • Louise Nevelson: used discarded objects and materials in a technique called “assemblage,” Sky Cathedral (fig. 23.14)
modern architecture
Modern Architecture
  • Mies van der Rohe’s International Style: Lake Shore Drive Apartment Houses, Chicago (fig. 23.8)
  • Le Corbusier: Notre-Dame-du-Haut (fig.23.9)
  • Frank Lloyd Wright: Guggenheim Museum (fig. 23.10)
music pop
  • Leonard Bernstein: Candide, West Side Story
  • Andrew Lloyd Weber: Cats, Evita, Phantom of the Opera
  • Rock-and-roll: Elvis, Chuck Berry, The Beatles
  • Rhythm and Blues/Soul
post modernism1
  • Skepticism toward any representation of reality that claimed to be universal or objective
  • Focus on the “construction of reality” through language and symbol
  • Emphasis on the local and particular rather than the universal
  • In the arts, a tendency toward parody, pastiche, and an eclectic mixture of styles (sometimes taken from history)
post modern architecture
Post-Modern Architecture
  • Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers: The Pompidou Center, Paris (fig.23.24)
  • Frank Gehry: Gehry House, Santa Monica (fig.23.25)
minimalism in music
Minimalism in Music
  • Philip Glass: opera, Einstein on the Beach
  • John Adams: opera, Nixon in China, The Death of Klinghoffer
visual arts
Visual Arts
  • Superrealism
  • Chuck Close: photographic image in paint
  • Duane Hanson: sculpted life-sized humans
  • Earth Art: Robert Smithson’s Spiral Jetty
  • Christo and Jeanne-Claude: Central Park Gates (fig.23.23)
new fiction
New Fiction
  • Meta-fiction: stories about stories, fiction about fiction
  • Thomas PynchonGravity’s Rainbow
  • Jorge Luis Borges: Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis, Tertius
magical realism in fiction
Magical Realism in Fiction
  • Qualities:
    • elements of the fantastic or marvelous
    • a lack of discursive explanation
    • an acceptance of the irrational and illogical
    • an abundance of sensory images and details
    • temporal distortions and causal disturbances
    • elements of folklore and legend
    • multiple perspectives and points of view
    • ambiguity and uncertainty
  • Writers: Gabriel García Márquez, Isabel Allende
liberated voices
Liberated Voices
  • Novelist Chinua Achebe (Nigerian): Things Fall Apart
  • Artist Betye Saar: The Liberation of Aunt Jemima (fig. 24.6)
  • Playwright and activist Vaclav Havel: Letters to Olga
  • Artist Judy Chicago: The Dinner Party (fig. 24.2)
  • Novelist Toni Morrison: Beloved
  • Writer N. Scott Momaday: House Made of Dawn
  • Architect Maya Lin: Vietnam War Memorial (fig.24.10)
a new century
A New Century
  • 9/11 The Twin Towers
  • Arata Isozaki:Team Disney Building, Orlando
  • Renzo Piano: Osaka Airport, Japan
  • Frank Gehry: Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain
  • “Hip-hop,” rap
  • Nam June Paik, video art
  • Painter Ma Liuming Baby 5
  • Architect Daniel Libeskind: Ground Zero