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  2. Postmodernism is a concept that encompasses a wide range of ideals, methods and practices. It is more importantly not a philosophical movement in itself, but rather, incorporates a number of philosophical and critical methods that can be considered 'postmodern', the most familiar methods include feminism and post-structuralism.

  3. Postmodernism is not a method of doing philosophy, but rather a way of approaching traditional ideas and practices in non-traditional ways that deviate from pre- established super structural modes.

  4. Postmodernism assumes that many, if not all, apparent realities are only social concepts and are therefore subject to change. It emphasizes the role of language, power relations, and motivations in the formation of ideas and beliefs.

  5. Postmodernism attacks the use of sharp binary classifications such as male versus female, white versus black, and imperial versus colonial; it holds realities to be plural and relative, and to be dependent on who the interested parties are and the nature of these interests.

  6. Postmodernism claims that there is no absolute truth and that the way people perceive the world is subjective

  7. Postmodernism, particularly as an academic movement, can be understood as a reaction to modernism in the Humanities. Whereas modernism was primarily concerned with principles such as identity, unity, authority, and certainty, postmodernism is often associated with difference, plurality, textuality, and skepticism.

  8. Literary critic Fredric Jameson describes postmodernism as the "dominant cultural logic of late capitalism." "Late capitalism" refers to the phase of capitalism after World War II.

  9. History and emergence • The term "Postmodern" was first used around the 1870s. In 1917, Rudolf Pannwitz used the term to describe a philosophically-oriented culture. His idea of post-modernism drew from Friedrich Nietzsche's analysis of modernity and its end results of decadence and nihilism.

  10. In 1949 the term was used to describe a dissatisfaction with modern architecture, and led to the postmodern architecture movement, it was also a response to the modernist architectural movement known as the International Style.

  11. After that, Postmodernism was applied to a whole host of movements, many in art, music, and literature, that reacted against tendencies in the imperialist phase of capitalism called "modernism".

  12. Walter Truett Anderson identifies Postmodernism as one of four typological world views.

  13. These four world views are the Postmodern-ironist, which sees truth as socially constructed; the scientific-rational, in which truth is found through methodical, disciplined inquiry; the social-traditional, in which truth is found in the heritage of American and Western civilization; and the neo-romantic, in which truth is found through attaining harmony with nature and/or spiritual exploration of the inner self.

  14. Influence on art and aesthetics • The movement of Postmodernism began with architecture, as a response to the perceived mildness, hostility, and Utopianism of the Modern movement. • It is this atmosphere of criticism, skepticism, and emphasis on difference over and against unity that distinguishes the postmodernism aesthetic.

  15. Among writers defining the terms of this discourse is Charles Jencks, described by Architectural Design Magazine as "the definer of Post-Modernism for thirty years" and the "internationally acclaimed critic..., whose name became synonymous with Post-modernism in the 80s"..

  16. Post- modern music • Postmodern music is either music of the postmodern era, or music that follows aesthetic and philosophical trends of postmodernism. As the name suggests, the postmodernist movement formed partly in reaction to the ideals of the modernist. Because of this, Postmodern music is mostly defined in opposition to modernist music, and a work can either be modernist, or postmodern, but not both.

  17. Postmodern Classical music as well is not a musical style, but rather refers to music of the postmodern era. It bears the same relationship to postmodernist music that postmodernity bears to postmodernism. Postmodern music, on the other hand, shares characteristics with postmodernist art—that is, art that comes after and reacts against modernism.

  18. Eclecticism and freedom of expression, in reaction to the rigidity and aesthetic limitations of modernism, are the hallmarks (identifying characteristics) of the postmodern influence in musical composition.

  19. differences between Modernism & Post modernism

  20. Conclusion • Postmodernism has influenced many cultural fields, including religion, literary criticism, sociology, linguistics, architecture, history, anthropology, visual arts, and music. • Modernism and postmodernism are also understood as cultural stances or sets of perspectives. In critical theory, "Postmodernism" refers to a point of departure for works of literature, drama, architecture, cinema, journalism, and design. It has also influenced marketing, business and the interpretation of law, culture, and religion in the late 20th and early 21st centuries

  21. Ghasemi- Pourshahbaz