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Biomes. Chaparral Desert Savanna Taiga Temperate Deciduous Forests Temperate Grassland Tropical Rain Forest Tundra. epiphytes. succulents. Biotic factors. Abiotic factors. wetland. Areas where land is periodically underwater. plankton.

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  • Chaparral

  • Desert

  • Savanna

  • Taiga

  • Temperate Deciduous Forests

  • Temperate Grassland

  • Tropical Rain Forest

  • Tundra


Areas where land is periodically underwater.


Organisms that cannot swim against currents, they are drifters. The majority are microscopic.


  • Free swimming organisms, such as fish, turtles, and whales.


  • Bottom dwelling organisms, such as mussels, worms, and barnacles.

  • (Many live attached to hard surfaces)

Littoral zone
Littoral zone

  • Nutrient rich zone near the surface of a lake or pond

Benthic zone
Benthic Zone

  • The bottom of the pond or lake, which is inhabited by decomposers, insect larvae, and clams.


  • An increase in the amount of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem.

Factor 1 salinity salinity the amount of dissolved salts in the water
Factor 1 – Salinity(salinity- the amount of dissolved salts in the water)

Fresh Water Ecosystem

Marine Ecosystem

Factor 2 sunlight
Factor 2 - Sunlight

  • Sunlight only reaches a certain distance below surface, so it effects the location of where photosynthetic organisms can live

Factors 3 oxygen
Factors 3 : Oxygen

  • Non photosynthetic organisms need oxygen to survive, so the amount of oxygen in an ecosystem determines how much life can be supported there.

Factor 4 nutrients
Factor 4: Nutrients

  • All organisms need nutrients to survive, but too much can be cause eutrophication

Factor 5 temperature
Factor 5: Temperature

  • Temperature controls the solubility of oxygen. As temperature increases, oxygen is less soluble.

  • Also influence the biological activity of aquatic organisms

Grouping of aquatic organisms
Grouping of aquatic organisms

  • Plankton Nekton Benthos

Ecosystems lakes and ponds
Ecosystems: Lakes and Ponds

How they form:

Naturally, where groundwater reaches Earth’s surface

Unnaturally – damming or rivers by humans or beavers

Life in a lake
Life in a lake

Life in the littoral zone

Life in the benthic zone

Littoral zone

Benthic Zone



Fish adapted to cooler water

Insect larvae


  • Rooted Plants, such as cattails

  • Further from shore – no rooted plants, instead there are phytoplankton

  • Fish

  • Insects

  • amphibians


  • Eutrophic lake – a lake that has a large amount of algae and plant growth

Fresh water wetlands
Fresh Water Wetlands



Dominated by woody plants (trees and shrubs)

-Occur on flat, poorly drained land often near streams

Species of trees depends on salinity

Birds such as wood ducks

Ideal habitat for amphibians (frogs, salamanders, etc)

Reptiles (ex. Alligator)

-Contain non woody plants (cattails)

-Tend to have low, flat lands and little water movement

-Benthic zones are nutrient rich and contain plants, decomposers, and scavengers

-Wide variety of water birds (ducks, herons, etc)

-Migratory birds

-Salinity varies(some slightly saline, some as salty as the ocean)

Environmental functions of wetlands
Environmental Functions of wetlands

  • Absorb and remove pollutants from water that flow through them

  • Control flooding by absorbing extra water when rivers overflow

  • Provide spawning grounds and habitat to fish and shellfish we consume

  • Provide habitat for native and migratory wildlife (many which are rare, threatened, and endangered)


  • Many originate from snow melt in mountains.

    At it’s headwaters river is cold and full of oxygen

    -As it flows down mountain it becomes warmer, wider, and slower, containing more vegetation and less oxygen

    As it flows nutrients are added to river from sediment and runoff

Life in a river
Life in a river

At headwaters


Plants set roots in river’s rich sediment

Fish such as catfish and carp

  • – mosses anchor to rocks

  • Trout and minnows adapted to cold, oxygen-rich water