LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION: Tissue Organ System Organ Cell Organism A. CELLS - basic unit of life TISSUE(groups of cells w/similar structure and function) ORGANS (groups of tissue working to do a specific job) ORGAN SYSTEMS (a group of organs working together) INDIVIDUAL ORGANISM ( a living thing that carries out life processes)
Converts foods into simpler molecules, then absorbs them into the blood stream for use by cells THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM AKA “Gastrointestinal Tract (GI)
MOUTH& salivary glands • Teeth – cut & grind food • Salivary Glands – moisten mouth & food with saliva, which hasamylase (an enzyme) to break down starches
ESOPHAGUS • Esophagus – food tube leading to stomach • Peristalsis – smooth muscle contracts to push food into stomach (also moves food through small intestines)
STOMACH Large musular sac which: • secretes mucus (to protect stomach) • secretes hydrochloric acid (which activates pepsin to digests protein) • churns food & liquidinto “chyme”
SMALL INTESTINE • Where most of the chemical digestion & absorption of nutrients occurs • Villi – tiny projectionsthat increase surface area for absorption of nutrients
LARGE INTESTINE PERISTALSIS • Also called the colon • Water is removed from the digested materials leaving the small intestine to form solid waste • Makes Vitamin K
RECTUM • Holds solid wastes, called feces, until they exit the body through the anus
A. SALIVARY GLANDS B. MOUTH C. ESOPHAGUS D. STOMACH Liver E. LARGE INTESTINE Pancreas F. SMALL INTESTINE H. ANUS G. RECTUM
LIVER • Largest internal organ • Secretes bile (helps digest fat) • Stores excess glucose as glycogen
PANCREAS • Secretes digestive fluids and insulin (which helps balance glucose in the blood stream)
GALL BLADDER • Stores bile until needed by the small intestines to digest lipids
LIVER stomach GALL BLADDER PANCREAS
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM System of vessels and/or spaces through which blood and/or lymph fluid flows in a human.
Circulatory system Has three (3) main parts: A. the heart B. blood vessels C. blood
C. BLOOD: -A liquid tissue consisting of plasma and blood cells in a suspension. • Transports nutrients, dissolved gases, enzymes, hormones & waste products
Blood Cells Red blood cells (erythrocytes) Most numerous, disk-shaped, carries O2 to all cells in the body. Carries a protein called HEMOGLOBIN White blood cells (leukocytes) Larger in shape than RBCs but fewer in number. Helps immune system fight off pathogens.
Plasma Yellowish liquid part of blood made up of 90% WATER & 10% PLASMA PROTEIN, DISSOLVED FAT, SALT AND SUGAR platelets (AID IN CLOTTING)
B. BLOOD VESSELS - • Arteries - vessels that carry blood AWAY • from the heart. • 2. Capillaries - thin-walled blood vessels in • which most of the exchange of gas, • nutrients & wastes takes place. • 3. Veins - vessels that RETURNblood to the • heart. Have valves!!!
Vein Capillary Artery
A. The Heart 1. Main pump of the circulatory system 2. Move Blood THROUGH the BODY 3. Surrounded by a loose-fitting sac called the pericardium. 4. Has four chambers: Right & Left Atria and Right & Left Ventricle
The Heart AORTA: transports O2rich blood from the left ventricle to the body Pulmonary artery Pulmonary artery Right atrium (contains the pacemaker - sends electric impulses that causes heart muscles to contract) Pulmonary vein Left atrium receives O2 rich blood from the lungs Left Ventricle - pumps O2 rich blood to the body. Right ventricle: pumps blood from the heart to the lungs Septum-thick muscle that separates right half of heart from left half.
Blood Pressure measure of the force that blood exerts against a vessel wall
Disorders Stroke HYPERTENSION Low blood pressure Heart Attack
ATHEROSCLEROSIS- NARROWED ARTERIES DUE TO PLAQUE (FATTY DEPOSITS), CAN CAUSE HEART ATTACK OR STROKE. HYPERTENSION-(“high blood pressure”) occurs when the force of blood pumping through vessels is too great. Anemia - when the blood transports too little oxygen.
SICKLE-CELL DISEASE Red Blood Cells are mis-shapened causing blood cells to “CLOG” vessels. Hereditary Leukemia -a form of cancer where bone marrow produces immature stem cells in large numbers & releasing them into the bloodstream.
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, air & tissues
NOSE & MOUTH • Entryway for air
PHARYNX: Common pathway for food and air.
EPIGLOTTIS • Flap that closes off the trachea when swallowing (prevents choking)
LARYNX • Voice box containing vocal cords
TRACHEA • Tube lined with cartilage rings (carries air to lungs) trachea
bronchi bronchioles BRONCHI &BRONCHIOLES • Branch off from trachea into each • lung
ALVEOLI • Grape-like air sacs responsible for exchanging gases with the blood
LUNGS • Have large surface area for gas exchange LUNG CANCER EMPHYSEMA HEALTHY LUNG
DIAPHRAGM • Muscular sheet that contracts to bring air into & relaxes to push air out of the lung
PHARYNX NOSE MOUTH EPIGLOTTIS LARYNX BRONCHIOLES TRACHEA ALVEOLI LUNGS DIAPHRAGM BRONCHI
Inhalation Exhalation Air out Air in Ribs fall Ribs rise Diaphragm Mechanisms of Breathing
Excretion: - the process that helps the body maintain homeostasis by disposing of wastes in the body.
MAIN ORGANS Kidneys: act as filters for all of the liquid waste in the body. ADRENAL GLANDS Ureters: tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder and transport urine to the bladder. Urinary bladder: elastic sac that is used to store and then remove urine (liquid waste) Urethra: single tube that allows the bladder to release the urine out of the body.
Although Lungs and Skin are major organs of other organ systems. They are also a part of the Excretory System. Lungs: excrete carbon dioxide waste as we exhale. Skin: excretes sweat through the pores in our skin.
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM • * COVERS YOUR BODY • CONSISTS OF SKIN AND ITS GLANDS, HAIR AND NAILS • * SKIN IS BODY’S LARGEST ORGAN • * PROTECTS & INSULATES THE BODY
Functions of Human Integumentary System • 1. Barrier against infection and injury • 2. Help regulate body temperature • 3. Remove waste products from body • 4. Provide protection against ultraviolet radiation • 5. Produces vitamin D Epidermis Skin Model Dermis
EPIDERMIS: Skin’s outer layer * COVERED WITH PORES * SWEAT & OIL SECRETED * TOP LAYER - FLAT, DEAD CELLS REPLACED EVERY 28 DAYS * KERATIN – WATERPROOF PROTEIN THAT KEEPS BACTERIA FROM ENTERING
DERMIS: Thick inner layeryer 1.MAKES COLLAGEN 2. PRODUCES MELANIN (pigment) CONTAINS NERVE ENDINGS,BLOOD VESSELS, HAIR FOLLICLES & SEBACEOUS GLANDS (sebum = oil) 4. SWEAT GLANDS
HAIR & NAILS Protects the scalp from UV rays Protects the tips of fingers and toes