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Lactose Intolerance

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  1. Lactose Intolerance By: Tricia Mitton http://images.google.ca/images?svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&q=milk

  2. Definition Lactose Intolerance is the inability to break down and absorb milk sugar, known as lactose, resulting in stomach pain, gas, and diarrhea if lactose is consumed.

  3. Types • Congenital Lactose Deficiency - inherited as autosomal recessive trait • Primary Lactose Deficiency - also known as “Late onset lactose deficiency” • Secondary Lactose Deficiency - developed from other intestinal diseases Such as: - Crohn Disease - Diabetic Gastropathy - Giardiasis http://www.athenadiagnostics.com/site/content/diagnostic_ed/genetics_primer/part_1.asp

  4. Causes • Lactose made up of glucose and galactose • When ingested travels though small intestine where an enzyme lactase located in microvilli is suppose to break down lactose • May have some enzyme lactase but not enough to digest lactose properly, depends on tolerance levels • Without lactose not broken down when digested causes symptoms to occur • can develop though eating habits (may consume too much or not enough lactose) • Can develop from having other intestinal diseases such as chron’s disease, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, etc. http://images.google.ca/images?svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&q=lactose+molecule http://images.google.ca/images?svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&q=digestive+system-+lactose+intolerance

  5. Symptoms In Children: - foamy diarrhea with diaper rash - vomiting - slow growth and development In Adults: - abdominal sounds - abdominal cramping - diarrhea - gas and bloating - nausea http://images.google.ca/images?svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&q=vomiting

  6. History • Is said that lactose intolerance was the case for every person living around 10 000 years ago • Only people who were lactose tolerant were dairy farmers, because of built up immunity from drinking cow’s milk • Over many years these farmers passed on the lactose tolerant trait and that’s why a lot more lactose intolerant than tolerant http://images.google.ca/images?svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&q=dairy+farmer

  7. Diagnosis Lactose Tolerance Test • Requires fasting for period of time before • Must consume lactose- containing substance • Blood samples taken to measure blood-sugar levels • Diagnosed when blood-sugar levels not risen Hydrogen Breathe Test • Used to measure amount of hydrogen in breath • Required to drink lactose containing substance • Diagnosed when raised hydrogen level is present in breath check Stool Acidity Test • Must consume lactose-containing substance • Diagnosed when fatty acids, lactic acid or glucose present in stool http://images.google.ca/images?svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&q=breathe+hydrogen+test&btnG=Search http://www.sw.org/sw/iwcontent/public/blood/en_us/images/blood_handandtestube.jpg

  8. Treatment • Symptoms can be controlled though diet free of lactose • Diet will vary depending on severity of tolerance to lactose • Lactose supplements available such as lactaid, dairy-erase, etc. • If symptoms are really bad may use endoscopy to view intestine, also to check for other possible disease • Physical examination and indication of medical history http://images.google.ca/images?svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&q=lactaid http://images.google.ca/images?hl=en&q=endoscopy&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wi

  9. Future Outlook • Currently incurable • Group of scientists at university of California found genetic basis for Lactose Intolerance • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) present in lactose intolerant people, ineffective nucleotide in tolerant individuals • SNP’s are very close to lactase and is what effects protein that decides how gene works • Currently developing quick, cheap genetic test to determine lactose tolerant from intolerant people • Will help with fact that lactose intolerance easily confused with many other intestinal diseases http://www.bgilt.com/images/SNP.jpg

  10. End Credits Griffith, Winter H. ”Lactose Intolerance.”http://www.mdadvice.com/library/symp/library/illness316.html(------). Hirsch, Larissa. Lactose Intolerance.” http://www.kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/nutrition/lactose_intolerance.html(2006) ___.”Lactose Intolerance.”http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/lactose intolerance/index.htm”(March 2006). E. Kalumuck, Karen E.(2002). Lactose Intolerance. In Magill’s Medical Guilde(Vol.2,pp. 1317-18). New Jersey:Salem Press, Inc. Sibley, Eric.”Lactose Intolerance.”<http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/lactoseintolerance/(March 2006) Randerson, James.”Genetic Basis for Lactose Intolerance Revealed.”<http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn1787(Nov.2006) ____.”Types of Lactose Intolerance.”<http://www.foodreactions.org/intolerance/lactose/types.html>(2005)