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The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Edited By: Adam Stonehill
Earlier Explorations – Pre Colombian Discoveries • Islam & the Spice Trade Malacca • A New Player Europe • Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271 • Expansion becomes a state enterprise monarchs had the authority & the resources. • Better seaworthy ships. • Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”
Admiral Zheng He • Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide! 1371-1435
Zheng He’s Voyages • In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port!
A Map of the Known World,pre-1492 (GeocentrismvsHeliocentrism)
Motives for European Exploration Crusades by-pass intermediaries in trade routes to get to Asia. (Muslim Empires) Renaissance curiosity about other lands and peoples. Reformation refugees & missionaries. (spread “your type” of Christianity) Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue. Technological advances. Fame and fortune.
New Maritime Technologies Better Maps [Portulan] Hartman Astrolabe(1532) Mariner’s Compass Sextant
Prince Henry, the Navigator • School for Navigation, 1419 • Created an “atmosphere” conducive to exploration
Portuguese Maritime Empire • First European “oceanic” explorers • West Africa first (forts established) • First Europeans to reach “wealthy” Indian ocean trade by Vasco da Gama • Gain “eastern” territories of Pope Alexander VI’s Treaty of Tordesillas • Main colonies are: Brazil (Sugarcane, most slaves of any colony) and East Indies (spices) • Decline with rise of Dutch and English by 1700.
Portuguese Maritime Empire • Exploring the west coast of Africa. • Bartolomeo Dias, 1487. • Vasco da Gama, 1498. • Calicut. • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).
Christofo Colon [1451-1506] (Christopher Columbus)
Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World:Early 16c
Atlantic Explorations Looking for “El Dorado”
The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs vs. Fernando Cortez Montezuma II
The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas vs. Francisco Pizarro Atahualpa
Why would the 'Columbian Exchange' be considered the tsunami of unintentional "bio-terrorism"??
Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conquistadores OfficialEuropeanColony! Missionaries PermanentSettlers
The Slave Trade • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans. • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. • Sugar cane & sugar plantations. • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518. • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries. • Between 16c & 19c, about 10-50 million Africans shipped to the Americas.
Slave Ship “Middle Passage”
African CaptivesThrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships!
The Colonial Class System Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Mulattos Native Indians Black Slaves
Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World • Encomienda or forced labor. • Council of the Indies. • Viceroy. • New Spain and Peru. • Papal agreement.
The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Our Lady of Guadalupe Guadalajara Cathedral Spanish Mission
Father Bartolome de Las Casas New Laws 1542
New Colonial Rivals • Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean. • Spain in Asia consolidated its holdings in the Philippines. • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591. • Surat in NW India in 1608. • Dutch arrive in India in 1595.
Impact of European Expansion Native populations ravaged by disease. Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”] New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”]. Deepened colonial rivalries.