America Becomes a Colonial Power. Ms. Susan M. Pojer and Ms. Hajduk. Why did America join the imperialist club at the end of the 19c?. Commercial/Business Interests-Industrial Revolution. U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908. 1. Commercial/Business Interests.
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America Becomes a Colonial Power Ms. Susan M. Pojerand Ms. Hajduk
Why did America join the imperialist club at the end of the 19c?
Commercial/Business Interests-Industrial Revolution U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
1. Commercial/Business Interests American Foreign Trade:1870-1914
2. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783
Social Darwinist Thinking • 4.Examples of European Nations The White Man’sBurden The Hierarchyof Race
5. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionariesin China, 1905 In the "Possible Future" portion of Our Country, Josiah Strong argued that the Anglo-Saxon race had a responsibility to "civilize And Christianize" the world due to its superiority.
Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan: 1853 The Japanese View of Commodore Perry
Sino-Japanese War-1894 overwhelmed China and acquired Taiwan and a sphere of influence in Korea 1910 Korea annexed Russo-Japanese War 1904-05-over Manchuria and Korea-fought in China-Japan won a. Treaty of Portsmouth T.R. helped to negotiate the treaty Japan
First time Asian nation won over European Japan resented lack of any war indemnities U. S. realized Japan had become a major and power and began to fear for Philippines Significance
Gentleman’s Agreement: 1908 • A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports to laborers entering the U.S. • Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude Japanese immigrants holding passports issued by other countries.The U.S. government got the school board of San Francisco to rescind their order to segregate Asians in separate schools. • 1908 Root-Takahira Agreement.-respect each others territorial possessions
Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1912 • Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. • Non-European powers, like Japan, would be excluded from owning territory in the Western Hemisphere.
“Seward’s Folly”: 1867 $7.2 million
Hawaii: "Crossroads of the Pacific"
U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
U. S. View of Hawaiians • Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii • 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty • 1890 – McKinley Tariff • 1893 –American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. • Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy- About 200,000 died of hunger and disease
American investors had about 50 million dollars in Cuban sugar and tobacco plantations Trade and investments suffered from unsettled conditions Many investors did oppose war. Wilson Gorman Tariff hard on Cuban economy Economic Interests
“Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer Hearst to Frederick Remington:You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war! William Randolph Hearst
De Lôme Letter • Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. • Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.
The Maine was sent to Havana in January 1898 to protect American interests during the long-standing revolt of the Cubans against the Spanish government. It sank of Feb. 15, 1898 when her forward gunpowder magazines exploded. Nearly three-quarters of the battleship's crew died as a result of the explosion-258 sailors died Sinking of the MaineSparks the War
Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
McKinley’s sends demands to Madrid-an immediate armistice-release of prisoners and American mediation between Spain and Cuba Sagasta government wanted to avoid war and said that if nothing was done to humiliated Spain, they could come to some kind of settlement Spain’s reaction
Wall Street –Big Business-and majority of Republican senators did not want war McKinley could not take the pressure from the press and the Young Republican such as Henry Cabot Lodge and others McKinley was already worried about the 1900 election McKinley's Reaction
U.S.S. Maine blows up Feb.15, 1898 Assistant Secretary Theodore Roosevelt orders Admiral Dewey to prepare for Asian War-February 25, 1898 Key Events and Battles
McKinley and Wheeler McKinley asks Congress to declare WarApril 11, 1898Teller Amendment
The most famous of all the units fighting in Cuba, the "Rough Riders" was the name given to the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry under the leadership of Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt resigned his position as Assistant Secretary of the Navy in May 1898 to join the volunteer cavalry. The Rough Riders were a mix of troops ranging from Ivy League athletes to glee-club singers to Texas Rangers and Indians. They were commanded y Leonard Wood. Rough Riders
During the War of 1898, Admiral Cervera commanded of the squadron sent to protect the colonies in the New World from the United States. He entered Santiago Bay, Cuba, May 19, 1898 where he was immediately blockaded by Admiral Sampson's fleet. On July 3, Cervera followed orders and tried an heroic but unsuccessful escape from the enemy's blockade. As a result, he lost all his ships and became a prisoner of war.
July 10 - A second bombardment of Santiago, which severely battered Morro Castle. July 11 - General Miles joined the American Army before Santiago and conferred wth GeneralShafter as to the means for reducing the city July 17 - After the expiration of two periods of truce General Toral surrendered Santiago and eastern province of Cuba to General Shafter. July 20 - General Leonard Wood was appointed Military Governor of Santiago, and entered uponhis duties by feeding the hungry, clothing the destitute and cleaning the city. July 21 - The harbor of Nipe was entered by four gunboats, which, after an hours' fierce bombardment, captured the port. July 25 - General Miles, with 8,000 men, after a voyage of three days, landed at Guánica, PuertoRico. He immediately began his march towards Ponce, which surrendered on the 28th. July 26 - The French Ambassador at Washington, Jules Cambon, acting for Spain, asked thePresident upon what terms he would treat for peace.
Hostilities were halted on August 12, 1898, with the signing in Washington of a Protocol of Peace between the United States and Spain. The formal peace treaty was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898, and ratified by the United States Senate on February 6, 1899. It came into force on April 11, 1899. Cubans participated only as observers. The United States gained the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Cuba was occupied as of July 17, 1898, and thus under the jurisdiction of the United States Military Government. It formed its own civil government and attained independence on May 20, 1902. However, the United States imposed various restrictions on the new government, including prohibiting alliances with other countries, and reserved for itself the right of intervention. (Platt Amendment) The US also established a perpetual lease of Guantanamo Bay. Peace Treaty
The Treaty of Paris: 1898 • Cuba was freed from Spanish rule. • Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam. • The U. S. paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines. • The U. S. becomes an imperial power!