Where is Greece? • Sunny Greece is 1,500 miles from England. • It’s capital city is Athens • It is famous for its beautiful beaches and sea!
Ancient Greece • In Ancient Greece, the different cities were at war with each other. • The most fearsome fighters came from the town of Sparta.
The Climate • The climate is Mediterranean. • The Mediterranean Sea affects the Greek climate, cooling the air in summer and providing warmth in winter. • The warm summers are cooled by a seasonal breezes from the Mediterranean called the ‘Meltemia’.
The Climate - Summer • The Greek summer is hot and dry. • On average the sun shines for 3,000 hours per year. • The average temperature is 33°. • In Britain it is 15°. • The average rainfall is 6mm. • In Britain it is 76mm.
The Climate - winter • The Greek winter is moderate. It can be rainy on costal regions and snowy in the mountains. • The average temperature is 15°. • In Britain it is 4°, sometimes falling to -10°. • The average rainfall is 65mm. • In Britain it is over 100mm.
Ancient greece - terrain • Greece has a very scenic landscape. • The terrain of Greece is very varied. • There are mountains, valleys and coasts. • The high mountains are separated by deep valleys through which rivers flow.
Ancient greece - terrain • No part of Greece is more than about forty miles from the coast (a couple of days walking). • There are lots of islands surrounding Greece. • However, millions of years ago the seabed was completely dry!
soil and plants • Vegetation is dependent on geographical regions. • Due to the variety of land, there a some 6,000 indigenous species in Greece. • In Ancient Greece, farmers grew olives, figs, grain, fruit and grapes in the fertile valleys.
Soil and plants • However, other parts of Ancient Greece had drier soil and less vegetation, particularly around the cities. • Although surrounded by sea water, they found it difficult to find fresh water away from the valleys. • The high mountains also prevented large-scale farming, so the Greeks were forced to look beyond their own country for fertile land.
volcanic • Another important aspect of the Greek environment is that it is very unstable. • Greece is in the middle of a very volcanic zone, between the European and African tectonic plates. • There are several active volcanoes and earthquakes are common.
The Greek World TimeLine
Trade, very important… Why? • Greek farmers could not have sustained a civilization like we saw in Egypt or Mesopotamia • Colonies shipped goods to mainland • Money replaced the barter system
Distinct City-States…Common Cultural Features • Strong city-state ties and identity • an independent spirit • Bitter economic rivalries • All led to continuous fighting among the Greek city-states BUT Despite these divisions, the Greeks shared a common culture.
Unifying Culture Forces of the City-States • They honored the same ancient heroes and Homer’s writings. • They participated in common festivals and holidays. • They prayed and shared the same gods. • They shared the Greek language. • They felt superior to non-Greeks, whom they called “barbaroi,” people who did not speak Greek.
Aegean Civilizations3000 B.C. – 1000 B.C. Aegean Civilizations3000 B.C. – 1000 B.C. • Minoans • Mycenaeans • Minoans • Mycenaeans
The Minoans2500 B.C. – 1400 B.C. • Located on the island of Crete • Sir Arthur Evans discovered the Minoan civilization in 1894 • Evans names them from his findings of King Minos
Extensive Trade Travel • A trading empire… took ideas from Egypt and Mesopotamia • Traders not fighters… Why? • Dominated the seas with no competition
What happens to the Minoans? • Civilizations just disappears: Destroyed around 1400 B.C. no one really knows… • Possible theories: -tidal wave -Mycenaean invasion -Volcanic eruption
The Minoans, 2000 B.C.-1400B.c. • Left us a legacy of fantastic frescoes. Frescoes reveal much about Minoan life -Worshipped a Mother Earth Goddess -the bull Women appeared to have more freedom
Fresco of three Minoan women N Entrance of the Palace of Knossos HistoryWiz: The Minoans
Rulers of Mycenae • Around 1900 B.C.E., a central Asian people began settling in mainland Greece • Spoke Greek • Intermarried with the locals • Became a interested in trade because of the poor soil and few natural resources
Very Aggressive warriors • They invade Crete and adopt and spread many features of the Minoan culture: • -adapted Minoan writing system to Greek • -Copies images from pottery • -Minoan legends influence Greek religion, art and politics
Mycenaeans located their cities on hills so they could watch for invaders by land or sea • Each city centered around a hilltop or an acropolison the mainland of Greece. • Lived in a fortified city with walls 20 feet thick
Mycenaean Tomb Lion gate of Mycenae Mycenaean Goddess More Mycenaean Artifacts
The Trojan War • The traditional legend is believed to reflect a real war • Between mainland Greeks and the inhabitants of Troy
Why So Remembered??? The war probably resulted from the desire of either to plunder the wealthy city or to put an end to Troy's commercial control of the Dardanelles purely economic
BUT… legend “tells us” that is about a Trojan youth kidnapping the wife of a Greek king!Why? Because he could not live without her…We love it don’t we… and so did the Greeks! Helen being stolen by Paris!
Modern archaeological excavations have shown that Troy was destroyed by fire sometime between 1230 BC and 1180 BC. • Which supports the time frame of the Trojan War…
How did the war end… • The war lasted ten years • With both sides well-matched only a masterful scheme could end the war: The Mycenaeans would give Troy a gift… THE TROJAN HORSE
Dark Age in Greece • Dorian invaders sweep onto the peninsula (Brown lines) • Iron weapons give them the advantage • The Mycenaeans never recover.
Dark Age in Greece • Dorians continue their advance around the Greek mainland and Crete • Artistic skills and writing were forgotten; not valued by the new rulers. • Many Greeks fled to Asia Minor and their the Phoenician alphabet is adopted
The Iliad and The Odysseyby Homer • Homer, blind poet • Poems appear at the end of Greek’s Dark Age -750 BC • They are orally passed to the next generation
The Epics of Homer • Homer’s heroes display honor, courage, and eloquence • The Iliad and the Odyssey reveal many of the values of ancient Greeks.
Greek Religion: Its Gods and Goddesses • Greeks were very religious people • No priestly class or sacred scripture. • Polytheistic
Greek Myths • A rich tradition developed about their Gods Greeks used these myths/stories to try and understand human passion and mysteries of nature -Myths would explain the changing seasons or -Try to explain death or disease
Greek Gods • People emulated the Gods’ behavior • Influenced peoples’ actions • Gods lived on Mt. Olympus • Each God controlled a specific part of the universe.
Greek Religion: Its Gods and Goddesses • Each city-state had a patron god. • Over 60 days a year were dedicated to the celebration, worship and partying! Athena, Goddess of Athens
Can you name some popular Greek Gods? Zeus: king of the gods Ares: god of war Aphrodite: goddess of love Athena: goddess of wisdom Apollo: god of light Poseidon: god of the sea
The Olympic Games • Stressed athleticism in their school curriculum • Held to honor Zeus • Trade and wars stopped during games • Athletes came from all over the world to compete • Individual events rather than team • Women were not allowed
Governing the City-States • Between 750 B.C. and 500 B.C., the Greeks evolved different forms of government. • At first, the ruler was a king. A government in which a king or queen exercises central power is called a monarchy.
Governing the City-States • Slowly, power shifted to a class of noble landowners. At first, the nobles defended the king, but in time, they won power for themselves. A government ruled by a landholding, noble elite is called an aristocracy.
Governing the City-States • As trade expanded, a new class of wealthy merchants, farmers, and artisans came to dominate some city-states. A government in which power is in the hands of a small, powerful elite, usually from the business class, is called an oligarchy.
Review of Governments • monarchy: [‘single ruler'] A government in which a king or queen exercises central power (chosen by birth; hereditary) • aristocracy: ['best-rule'] noble land- holding families (hereditary distinction) • oligarchy: ['few-rule'] small group of business elites like, merchants, farmers and artisans (wealth distinction)
New Kind of Military • Each city-state had citizen-soldiers • Each city-state provided its own defense • Hoplite name comes from the Greek word “hopon” for shield Hoplite
New Technique: Phalanx • A new method of fighting emerged called “phalanx” • A massive formation of heavily armed foot soldiers that moved in unison • Required hours of drill and practice!
Sparta • Peloponnesus region in southern Greece • Founded by descendants of Dorian invaders • Map shows Sparta and its colonies
Sparta • Military Society; largest and most sophisticated army in the known world • Forbade: trade, travel and free speech! • Needed army to control slave population • Control lasted over 250 years.