Governing the city-states • Polis – Greek unique version of a city-state. Polis’ were typically built on two levels • Acropolis – High city, had temples dedicated to different gods and goddesses. • On flatter ground would be the main city.
SPARTA: Location – Spartans were Dorians who conquered Laconia. This region lies in the Peloponnesus, the southern part of Greece.
Sparta: Government • Oligarchy 2 kings • Council of Elders who advised the oligarchs. • An assembly made up of all citizens approved major decisions. Citizens were native born Spartan males over the age of 30. • The assembly also elected 5 ephors, officials who held the real power and ran day-to-day affairs. • Social Hierarchy: Ruling families Free non-citizens Helots Slaves
SPARTA Helots Messenians enslaved by the Spartans.
Sparta: Economy • Farmers, self-sufficient • Slaves / non-citizens produced crops • Conquered other areas for necessary supplies • Did not want to acquire wealth; lived simple lives “Spartans are willing to die for their city because they have no reason to live”
Sparta: Education • Training – From childhood a Spartan (both boys & girls) prepared to be part of a military state. Every sickly child was abandoned to die. • At the age of seven, boys began training for a lifetime in the military. • Hard training and dieting for life to become excellent soldiers. • Think 300
Sparta • **No individual form of expression: • Uniformity=key • Isolated themselves from other Greeks • Looked down on trade and wealth • Forbade travel, and had little use for new ideas and the arts
Sparta: Women & Slaves • Women: • Must be strong, ready to fight, and breed • Could own and control property • Slaves: • Treated harshly, rebellion=death • Outnumbered Spartans 8:1 = STRICT CONTROL
Piraeus: Athens’ Port City Geography – located in Attica, north of Peloponnesus
Athens • Aristocracy – Noble landowners held power and chose the chief officials. • Discontent grew – merchants and soldiers resented the power of the nobles. Farmers were in debt. • As discontent grew, Athens moved toward a Democracy, or government by the people.
Athens: Government • Ultimately the world’s first form of democracy • All male citizens could participate in government • Limited citizenship (severe restrictions) but still gave more people a say in government
Economy • Traded with foreign lands and other city-states • Used coins to make trade easier (currency) • Bought/sold goods in the city marketplace • Accumulated wealthy, lived luxurious lives
Education • Boys attended school if their families could afford it. • Studied public speaking so they could voice their views. • Athens encouraged young men to explore many areas of knowledge • Girls had little or no formal education
Role of Women & Slaves • Women: • Lived in seclusion • Spun and wove, cared for children, and prepared food. • Stayed in the home • Slaves: • Born into slavery or captured in war; variety
The Development of Democracy in Athens The Road to Reform
Greek Names: On the Road to Democracy Cylon- would-be tyrant
Greek Names: On the Road to DemocracyPericles- Funeral Oration “Our government does not copy our neighbors', but is an example to them. It is true that we are called a democracy, for the (power) is in the hands of the many and not of the few.”
Expansion of the Persian Empire • Darius I was considered the greatest Persian King 522BC – 486BC • The Persian empire stretched from Asia Minor to the border of India, including the Greek city-states of Ionia • Hated the Greeks and their culture. • The Greek city-states helped defend the Ionian city-states
Ionian Revolt 499 BC • King Darius I vs. Ionian Greeks • Ionia is in Asia Minor and Persia conquered it around 500 BC • The Athenians helped the Ionians, when they rebelled against Persian rule, by sending ships • The Persians soon crushed the rebel cities • His servant would whisper at him every meal, “Master, remember the Athenians.”
Marathon 490 BC • King Darius I vs. the Athenians • Darius sent a huge force to Marathon, just north of Athens • During fierce hand to hand combat the Athenians were able to push through the Persian line, causing the Persians to retreat • 192 Athenian causalities and 6400 Persian
Marathon con’t • The Athenian leader Themistocles was still worried the Persians would send ships to Athens • Phidippides ran to Athens to tell them of victory and warn them of the Persians • Phidippides run from Marathon to Athens was the first 26 mile run, and completed in 3 hours • Phidippides became a martyr, dying from exhaustion after fighting all day and completing the run • The victory was celebrated, but the Athenians new they had to build a fleet of warships and build for defenses
Thermopylae • King Xerxes vs Sparta • Persian army consisted of about 2.6 million vs Sparta’s 300 • Took seven says for Xerxes to cross the Hellespont • Persians defeated the Spartans. After, the Persians burnt Athens, but no one was there
Salamis 480 BC • Salamis is a narrow strait connecting Peloponnesus to the Greek mainland • Athenian general, Themistocles, urged them to build a large fleet to lure the Persians into the strait • The Athenian warships drove into the Persian ships. Sinking over 200 Persian ships • The following year the Greeks defeated the Persians on land in Asia Minor. • Results: Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state • The single most significant battle in human history!!
Delian League • After the Persian Wars, Athens set up the Delian League, an alliance with other Greek city-states • Athens used its power in the league to slowly form the Athenian Empire, forcing other city-states to remain with the league
The Age of Pericles • Golden years for Athens under statesman Pericles • Direct Democracy – people are involved in making decisions • 6,000 member council (poor and rich) • Athenians also served on a jury, to make final judgments in a trial • Ostracism – People could vote out or banish public figures they saw as a threat to democracy • Funeral Oration – Speech given by Pericles and recorded by Thucydides. Known as the earliest and greatest expressions of democratic ideals
Age of Pericles • Time of new temples and statues • Athens became the cultural center of Greece
Peloponnesian War • Enemies of Athens formed the Peloponnesian League • Sparta vs. Athens for 27 years