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Principals of Animal Diseases Internal metabolik diseases. Di siapkan oleh Prof . Dr.Pratiwi Ts. Deskripsi materi.

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Principals of Animal Diseases Internal metabolik diseases

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    1. Principals of Animal DiseasesInternal metabolik diseases Di siapkanoleh Prof . Dr.Pratiwi Ts poultry metabolik diseases-pts-2

    2. Deskripsimateri Membahas gejala, kausaserta pathogenesis danpatofisiologiberbagaijenispenyakitinterna yang bersifatsistemik, diakibatkanolehgangguan metabolism, hormonal, faktorketurunanataugenetik, sertaketepatanpenegakantindakandiagnostiksehinggadapatmelakukanterapi yang tepatsesuaidenganpenyebabnyapadaberbagaispesieshewan. peny metabolik pts 2012

    3. Tujuan Diakhir kuliah mahasiswa diharapkan dapat memahami dan menjelaskan jenis penyakit interna disebabkan gangguan metabolisme dan genetik meliputi gejala dan penyebab serta dapat melakukan diskusi untuk menentukan diagnosa, tindakan prevensi dan memilih tindakan kuratif yang tepat. peny metabolik pts 2012


    5. What is a metabolic disease? “Inborn errors of metabolism” inborn error : an inherited (i.e. genetic) disorder metabolism : chemical or physical changes undergone by substances in a biological system “any disease originating in our chemical individuality” In toxication peny metabolik pts 2012

    6. Energy Balance ENERGY BALANCE EBAL = Feed Intake – (Maintenance (BW0.75) + Milk Production (yield and composition)) Especially fat! OUTPUT INPUT OUTPUT

    7. When the rate of “input” of dietary nutrientsis out of balance with the rate of “output” ofproduction (lambs, kids, milk) Metabolic diseases occur when homeostatic and fuel mechanisms fail peny metabolik pts 2012

    8. Caused of metabolic disease? • Small molecule disease • Carbohydrate • Protein • Lipid • Nucleic Acids • Toxin • Organelle disease • Lysosomes • Mitochondria • Peroxisomes • Cytoplasm peny metabolik pts 2012

    9. Noninfectious Disease Not contagious Genetic diseases Caused by defects in the genes Problem or disease can be passed from parent to offspring

    10. Genetic Diseases Cannot be spread through contact with other animals Control of genetic diseases, using good selection practices Avoid breeding animals that are known to have genetic defects in their line

    11. Nutritional Diseases Milk fever in dairy cattle Cows lie down and are unable to stand Insufficient amount of Ca in the bloodstream

    12. Poisoning Moldy feed can contain toxins Aflatoxins and ergot – fungi that grow on grains Grazing on poisonous plants

    13. How do you recognize a metabolic disorder ?? • SIMPLE LABORATORY TESTS, CLINICAL EXAMINATION • Glucose, Electrolytes, Gas, Ketones, BUN (blood urea nitrogen), Creatinine, Kalsium • Lactate, Ammonia, Bilirubin, LFT • Amino acids, Organic acids, Reducing subst peny metabolik pts 2012

    14. Health is determined by interaction of interrelated variables 1. Genetic or biological determinants, 2. Behavior (diet and lifestyle habits), 3. Pre-and postnatal environments (physical, biologic, economic, and social), 4. The health care system peny metabolik pts 2012

    15. 1-Stage of pre-pathogenesis (pre disease) (susceptibility) = well: The disease has NOT developed ( animal is not yet involved) but animal is very much exposed to risk factors which increase the likelihood that the disease will develop. peny metabolik pts 2012

    16. 2-Stage of pathogenesis: • starts with entry of the agent Pre-symptomatic stage (latent disease): No signs or symptoms (incubation period) • start of pathologic changes Clinical disease stage (symptomatic disease): peny metabolik pts 2012

    17. TREATMENT Antibiotics Useful in controlling bacteria – not viruses Are drugs that originate from living sources Usually those living sources are molds and fungi BUKAN UNTUK TERAPI PENYAKIT METABOLIK TETAPI SIDE EFFECT (KONTAMINASI SEKUNDER)

    18. Non-infectious health problems differ from infectious Examples of non-infectious problems: Genetic defects Nutritional disorders Poisoning Metabolic disorders (ketosis, diabetes) peny metabolik pts 2012

    19. Outcome (end results) of the disease process: • Recovery (cure). • Chronicity. • Disability (any limitations of person's activities -mental or physical- as a result of acute or chronic condition). • Death. peny metabolik pts 2012


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    22. BCS and Increased Health Risk Metabolic problems can set the stage for consequences of other nutritional-stress complications, including infections such as mastitis. • Excess Body Condition • Fat Cow Syndrome • Ketosis • Displaced Abomasum • Milk Fever • Metritis • Mastitis • Lameness • Limited Dry Matter Intake • Thin Body Condition • Lameness peny metabolik pts 2012

    23. JENIS-JENIS PENYAKIT Milk Fever = hypocalcemia Pregnancy Toxaemia / Ketosis / Fatty Liver Disease Ketosis(Acetonemia, acetonuria, ketonemia, ketonuria Hepatic LipidosisFatty liver disease, fat cow syndrome, pregnancy toxemia (small ruminants) peny metabolik pts 2012

    24. JENIS-JENIS PENYAKIT Lactational Ketosis / Fatty Liver Disease Nervous ketosis Hypomagnesemia (Grass Tetany, Lactation Tetany, Milk Tetany) Lactic Acidosis (Grain Overload) Zinc Deficiency peny metabolik pts 2012

    25. KULIAH KE 2 peny metabolik pts 2012

    26. PeriparturientHypocalcemia(Milk Fever) peny metabolik pts 2012

    27. Milk Fever = hypocalcemia (low blood calcium) • When: within 2 days of calving on 3rd or later lactation • Why: rapid synthesis of milk draining calcium from blood • D: no fever, cow staggering or down, off feed, glazed eyes peny metabolik pts 2012

    28. Hypocalcemia (1) Hypocalcemia is a disease commonly seen in dairy cattle on or immediately following calving. Small ruminants can experience hypocalcemia during late pregnancy associated with rapid calcium loss to the developing fetus(es) for bone mineralization. Other species can experience hypocalcemia at or near the time of peak lactation (lactationaleclampsia). peny metabolik pts 2012

    29. Hypocalcemia (2) Hypocalcemia during late pregnancy is a result of insufficient dietary calcium to meet fetal needs. Insufficient calcium intake during late pregnancy or early lactation will require the body to mobilize calcium from bones to meet the need. If the hormonal mechanisms are not properly prepared, mobilization will be delayed and low blood calcium concentration will result peny metabolik pts 2012

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    38. Pregnancy Toxaemia peny metabolik pts 2012

    39. Pregnancy Toxaemia / Ketosis / Fatty Liver Disease Pregnancy toxemia (pregnancy ketosis or twin lamb/kid disease) is a metabolic disease of goats and sheep commonly occurring in the last six weeks of gestation, especially in those dams with multiple fetuses. Negative energy balance with associated mobilization of fatty acids (NEFA) from adipose stores is the underlying problem. peny metabolik pts 2012

    40. Factors inducing a reduction in feed intake (pregnancy, poor quality forages, feeding management) or increasing energy requirement (rapid fetal growth, lactation, environmental conditions) contribute to the duration and magnitude of negative energy balance and predisposition to aberrant metabolism leading to subclinical or clinical disease. peny metabolik pts 2012

    41. Faktoreksternal Addition of external stressors such as severe weather, sudden changes in feed, other disease or transportation further accentuate negative energy balance. Mortality rate is high in affected animals when liver function is compromised as a result of fatty infiltration. peny metabolik pts 2012

    42. Ketosis peny metabolik pts 2012

    43. Ketosis(Acetonemia, acetonuria, ketonemia, ketonuria) Definition of ketosis: Abnormally elevated concetrations of the ketone bodies acetoacetic acid, acetone, and Betahydroxybutyrate, in body tissues and fluids peny metabolik pts 2012

    44. Ketosis Occurrence: • Occurs 2 to 4 weeks after calving (peak incidence is about 3 week) • Affect most high producing cows (sub-clinically) in early lactation • “Typical” ketone (acetone) smell in the breath; Lack of appetite Decreased rumen mobility and production of “dry feces” Loss of weight, gaunt appearance, and dullness Symptoms:

    45. Ketosis Occurrence: • Two changes in the blood related to liver functions • Drop in blood glucose (<50 mg/dl) • Rise in -hydroxy butyrate (>14.4 mg/dl) • Presence of ketones in urine (“Ketostick”): • -hydroxy butyrate; Acetone; Aceto-acetic acid. Detection:

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    50. Fatty liver disease peny metabolik pts 2012