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Layout PowerPoint Presentation

Layout

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Layout

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  1. D D L L M M D D L L M M L L M M G G L L G G A A A A G G Layout

  2. What Is Layout Planning? • What centres should the layout include? • How much space and capacity does each centre need? • How should each centre’s space be configured? • Where should each centre be located?

  3. Strategic Issues • Facilitating the flow of materials • Increasing the efficient utilization of labour and equipment • Increasing customer convenience • Reducing hazards to workers • Improving employee morale • Improving communication

  4. Criteria for a Good Layout • Maximum flexibility • Maximum co-ordination • Maximum use of volume • Maximum visibility • Maximum accessibility

  5. Criteria for a Good Layout • Minimum distance • Minimum handling • Minimum discomfort • Inherent safety • Maximum security • Efficient material flow • Identification

  6. Layout Types • Process Layout • Product Layout • Fixed-Position Layout • Hybrid Layout - Cells

  7. Layout Types - Process Layout

  8. Layout Types - Process Layout • Organizes resources around the process and groups work stations or departments according to function • Intermittent, low volume, high-variety

  9. Layout Types - Process Layout Grinding Forging Lathes Painting Welding Drills Milling Office Foundry machines (a) Layout of a job shop

  10. Layout Types - Process Layout Grinding Forging Lathes Painting Welding Drills Milling Office Foundry machines (a) Layout of a job shop

  11. Layout Types - Process Layout Grinding Forging Lathes Painting Welding Drills Milling Office Foundry machines (a) Layout of a job shop

  12. Layout Types - Process Layout Grinding Forging Lathes Painting Welding Drills Milling Office Foundry machines (a) Layout of a job shop

  13. Layout Types - Process Layout Grinding Forging Lathes Painting Welding Drills Milling Office Foundry machines (a) Layout of a job shop

  14. Layout Types - Process Layout • Advantages • General purpose, flexible resources are less capital intensive • Less vulnerable to changes in product mix or new market strategies • Equipment utilization can be higher, because not dedicated to one product line • Employee supervision can be more specialized

  15. Layout Types - Process Layout • Disadvantages • Slower processing rates • Lost production time during setups • More capital and more floor space tied up with inventory • Longer manufacturing lead times • Costly materials handling, requiring variable path devices • Production planning and control more difficult

  16. Layout Types - Process Layout • A major challenge in designing process layouts is to identify dominant flow patterns among the jumbled traffic and to locate centres so that materials handling is minimized.

  17. Layout Types - Product Layout

  18. Layout Types - Product Layout • Dedicates resources to a product or closely related product family • Repetitive, high-volume, continuous production • Workstations or departments are arranged in a linear path, which is consistent with the routing sequence of the product.

  19. Layout Types - Product Layout Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station 4 (b) Layout of a production line

  20. Layout Types - Product Layout Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station 4 (b) Layout of a production line

  21. Layout Types - Product Layout Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station 4 (b) Layout of a production line

  22. Layout Types - Product Layout Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station 4 (b) Layout of a production line

  23. Layout Types - Product Layout • Advantages • Faster processing rates • Lower inventories • Infrequent setups

  24. Layout Types - Product Layout • Disadvantages • More risk of layout redesign • Less flexible • For low volume, dedicated resources have low utilization

  25. Layout Types - Product Layout • Challenge in designing product layouts • Minimize resources used to achieve desired output rate • Balance tasks, equalize the workload assigned to resources

  26. Layout Types - Fixed-position Layout

  27. Layout Types - Fixed-position Layout • Product is fixed in place. Resources come to the product, minimizing number of times product must be moved. • Used for: • Very large products, ships, roads, power plants, airplanes • Service of fragile or bulkyitems

  28. Layout Types - Fixed-position Layout Process Process Process Product Process Process

  29. Layout Types - Fixed-position Layout • Advantages • Material movement is reduced to a minimum. • The task is usually carried out by a gang of operators, hence continuity of operators and responsibility is required. • Production centres often operate independently of each other, and effective scheduling can be planned to ensure minimum total production time.

  30. Layout Types - Fixed-position Layout • Limitations • Movement of machines and equipment to the production centre may be costly and time consuming. • Positioning of the material or object or machines may be cumbersome and costly. • Machine and equipment utilisation is usually low, owing to handling and positioning time. • High grades of skill are required.

  31. Muther’s P-Q Chart

  32. Group Technology

  33. One Worker, Multiple Machines Group Technology Machine 2 Machine 3 Machine 1 Materials in Finished goods out Machine 4 Machine 5

  34. Group Technology

  35. Group Technology Parts Families Source: Mikell P. Groover. Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Aided Manufacturing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980, p. 540. Used by permission.

  36. Group Technology

  37. Group Technology Lathing Milling Drilling D D L L M M D D L L M M Grinding L L M M G G Assembly L L G G A A Receiving and shipping A A G G

  38. Group Technology Lathing Milling Drilling D D L L M M D D L L M M Grinding L L M M G G Assembly L L G G A A Receiving and shipping A A G G (a) Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells

  39. Group Technology Lathing Milling Drilling D D L L M M D D L L M M Grinding L L M M G G Assembly L L G G A A Receiving and shipping A A G G (a) Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells

  40. Lathing Milling Drilling D D L L M M D D L L M M Grinding L L M M G G Assembly L L G G A A Receiving and shipping A A G G Group Technology (a) Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells

  41. M L L G Assembly area D A A Cell 2 Cell 1 L M Receiving G G Cell 3 M L D Shipping Group Technology (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells

  42. M L L G Assembly area D A A Cell 2 Cell 1 L M Receiving G G Cell 3 M L D Shipping Group Technology (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells

  43. M L L G Assembly area D A A Cell 2 Cell 1 L M Receiving G G Cell 3 M L D Shipping Group Technology (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells

  44. M L L G Assembly area D A A Cell 2 Cell 1 L M Receiving G G Cell 3 M L D Shipping Group Technology (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells

  45. Longhorn Machine

  46. Department Area Needed(ft2) 1 Burr and grind 1000 2 NC equipment 950 3 Shipping and receiving 750 4 Lathes and drills 1200 5 Tool crib 800 6 Inspection 700 Total 5400 60' 90' Longhorn Machine

  47. Department Area Needed(ft2) 1 Burr and grind 1000 2 NC equipment 950 3 Shipping and receiving 750 4 Lathes and drills 1200 5 Tool crib 800 6 Inspection 700 Total 5400 2 4 3 60' 6 5 1 90' Longhorn Machine Figure 10.6

  48. 2 4 3 60' 6 5 1 90' Longhorn Machine

  49. 2 4 3 60' 6 5 1 90' Trips Between Departments Department 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 Burr and grind — 2 NC equipment — 3 Shipping and receiving — 4 Lathes and drills — 5 Tool crib — 6 Inspection — Longhorn Machine