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Layout

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Layout

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  1. Layout Adapted from: Facilities Planning, Tompkins, White, Bozer, Frazelle, Tanchoco, Trevino, Wiley, New York, 1996

  2. Graph-Based Construction Method 1 1 2 I 3 9 2 8 4 10 12 5 3 13 0 7 20 4 0 2 5

  3. Adjacency Graphs – Version A 1 0 9 5 7 2 2 13 12 4 20 3

  4. Adjacency Graphs – Version B 1 5 2 4 3 0 7 9 10 13 12 20

  5. Graph-Based – Step 2 2 4 3 12 13 20

  6. Graph-Based – Step 3 1 2 4 3 9 12 13 10 8 20

  7. Graph-Based – Step 4 1 5 2 4 3 7 9 13 12 0 2 10 8 20

  8. Block Layout From The Final Adjacency Graphs 12 2 13 9 7 0 1 5 8 2 10 3 4 20

  9. Developing Alternative Layouts • Exert the necessary effort • Set a time limit – People need deadlines or milestones to mark progress on a long term project (celebrate small victories) • Seek many alternatives – decision makers will expect to see several options • Establish a goal – without a goal, success is difficult to measure • Make liberal use of the questioning attitude – 5 W’s, Devils advocate • Don’t get bogged down in details too soon – many times technical and operational people will tend to look at the details of a particular aspect of a project rather than continue to consider other alternatives.

  10. Developing Alternative Layouts • Don’t “fail to see the forest for the tress” – fail to see the big picture because the focus is on the details • Think big, then think little – do not limit your thinking - consider the ideal situation even though it is not feasible • Don’t be conservative - • Avoid premature rejection – let seemly wild ideas remain in consideration until a large number of ideas have been developed and considered

  11. Developing Alternative Layouts • Avoid premature acceptance – do not jump to a solution – continue to develop alternatives • Refer to analogous problems of others • Consult the literature • Consult peers in other organizations • Use the brainstorming technique • Divorce your thinking from the existing solution • Spread the effort out over time – creativity often requires time to develop

  12. Developing Alternative Layouts • Involve operating people – people closest to the process often: • Understand the process better than anyone else since they operate it everyday • Know details about the process that are otherwise unknown to engineers and management • Management needs the buy-in of operators to make the new layout function to its full capability • Motivated people can make a bad plan work and a good plan fail

  13. Developing Alternative Layouts • Involve management • Need management support for any large decision • May provide insight about: • Future business plans not documented in formal plans • Industry trends • Market trends • Experiences at other facilities – many managers have managed other facilities in the organization or other organizations, which may lead to lessons learned • May have contacts at other companies for benchmarking

  14. Developing Alternative Layouts • Involve experienced people • Know a lot about the process • Know what has works and not worked in the past • Are often leaders (both formal and informal) that will be very influential to others in the facility – thus if the leaders are involved, then they will likely buy-in the decisions and support than during implementation

  15. Developing Alternative Layouts • Involve inexperienced people • Do not know a lot about the process and thus are not biased toward a given solution • Often provide new ideas from their previous experience • Bring enthusiasm to the project since they were chosen to be a part of the layout process

  16. Developing Alternative Layouts • Involve those who oppose change • If you can convince that person that the new layout is a positive change, then others will be influenced by that person’s conversion • These people, once converted, will often be your best advocate for the new layout • Involve those who promote change • Often open to new ideas • Willing to sell those ideas to others • Good at offering new ideas

  17. Developing Alternative Layouts • Be aware of what the competition is doing • Do not get caught by surprise by what the competition/industry is doing • Recognize your own limitations • Look for trends • Do your homework first • Understand the requirements • Don’t overlook an improved present method • Think long range

  18. Need For Change • Changes in design of product • Eliminating products from the product line • Introduction of new products • Changes in process sequence for existing products • Replacement of equipment • Changes in production quantities and schedule • Changes in organizational structure

  19. Planning for Facility Reorganization • The facility should have a long term plan that supports the long term plan of the organization • The facility “Master Plan” should: • Attempt to anticipate future requirements • Make provisions for adapting to changes in facility requirements – otherwise a decision could be made that will significantly limit future changes • Placement of shipping and receiving docks • Location of heavy machinery and other equipment that are difficult to move • Clear building heights • Load bearing walls

  20. Pallet Security Options • Glue – concrete • Stretch wrap – bonds to pallet and around 3 times – when an interlocked pattern cannot be found, irregular shaped objects, • Shrink wrap – plastic bag to cover the load and apply heat – boxes, bags, - anything to cover to keep moisture from entering