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The Scientific Revolution. 1540-1670. Scientific Thought pre-1600. Revolved around Aristotle Astronomy Physics and Motion Referred to Galen for medical explanations Relied on the Catholic Church. Causes of the Scientific Revolution.

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scientific thought pre 1600
Scientific Thought pre-1600
  • Revolved around Aristotle
    • Astronomy
    • Physics and Motion
  • Referred to Galen for medical explanations
  • Relied on the Catholic Church

Read “Early Modern Europe: Motives for the Scientific Revolution” and answer questions

  • 1. What groups of society hoped to benefit from the Scientific Revolution?
  • 2. Why was there this sudden interest to know and understand?
nicolaus copernicus 1473 1543
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
  • Polish clergyman
  • Studied Ptolemy
  • Suggested that the sun, rather than the earth is the center of the universe
  • Works published posthumously
  • Implications and Impact of his work
tycho brahe 1546 1601
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
  • Danish nobleman
  • Received grants from the government to build conservatories
  • All planets revolve around the sun and that the group of sun and planets revolve around the earth’s system
johannes kepler 1571 1630
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
  • Brahe’s assistant
  • Law 1: Orbits are elliptical rather than circular (1609)
  • Law 2: Planets do not move in uniform speed around the sun (1609)
  • Law 3: There is a force that pulls everything toward earth
  • Used mathematics to prove the relations of the system
isaac newton 1642 1727
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
  • Works with alchemy
  • Law of Universal Gravitation
galileo documents
Galileo Documents
  • “Letter to Christina of Tuscany”
  • Author
  • Date:
  • What topics should be left to science? Religion?
  • Why are they views crucial to the Scientific Revolution?
  • “The Papal Inquisition of 1633”
  • Author:
  • Date:
  • Why were Galileo’s views threatening to the Catholic Church?
  • What are some long-range consequences of such a stance by the Church towards these views?
rene descartes 1596 1650
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
  • The Discourse on Method
    • 1. SOAPS analysis
      • S
      • O
      • A
      • P
      • S
    • 2. How do his methods on attaining knowledge differ from traditional ways?
    • 3. What are the weaknesses of his approach?
francis bacon documents
Francis Bacon Documents
  • “Attack on Authority and Advocacy of Experimental Science”
    • Developed empirical reasoning/method
    • Leads to the development of the Scientific Method
the anatomy lesson of dr tulp 1632
“The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp” ~ 1632
  • Rembrandt van Rijn
  • Symbols and Meaning
backlash from the catholic church and responses
Backlash from the Catholic Church and Responses
  • Why the ideas were so feared
    • If the universe is expanding, where is the room for God?
    • No reliance on faith or miracles
    • Turned against traditional viewpoints and beliefs
    • Threat of losing members
  • Actions of the Catholic Church
    • House arrest of scientists (i.e. Galileo)
    • Refusal to teach new theories at universities
  • Scientific Response
    • Scripture is vague – need an explanation
    • Can use religion to explain those things in nature that cannot be explained
    • We can use the knowledge that God gave us to develop and grow
big picture questions
Big Picture Questions
  • What were the main ways in which the science of the seventeenth century broke with the science of previous centuries?
  • What were some of the main problems facing seventeenth century scientists? How did they handle these problems?
  • What factors were present in seventeenth century society that made these new discoveries possible?
  • What were the effects of the Scientific Revolution?