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Instruction Sets Address Modes and Formats Week 11. Computer Architecture. Review Keywords & Concepts. English words & ideas you must know: MMX Saturation Arithmetic Stack Call / Return Instructions. What we will learn today. Review last class

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Instruction Sets Address Modes and Formats Week 11


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    1. Instruction SetsAddress Modes and Formats Week 11 Computer Architecture Computer Architecture

    2. Review Keywords & Concepts • English words & ideas you must know: • MMX • Saturation Arithmetic • Stack • Call / Return Instructions Computer Architecture

    3. What we will learn today • Review last class • Instruction Sets: Addressing Modes & Formats • Addressing • Instruction Formats • QUIZ Computer Architecture

    4. Types of Operations • Data Transfer • Arithmetic • Logical • Conversion • I/O • System Control • Transfer of Control Computer Architecture

    5. Data Transfer • Move – transfer from source to destination • Store – CPU to memory • Load (fetch) – memory to CPU • Exchange – swap contents of src & dest • Clear (reset) – set to all zero’s • Set – set to all one’s • Push – push onto a stack • Pop – pop off a stack Computer Architecture

    6. Transfer of Control • Branch Instruction • Basically sets PC (Program counter) • Jump or ‘goto’ statement • Also, conditional branch (test instructions) • Skip Instructions • ex: ISZ – Increment-and-skip-if-zero • Procedure calls Computer Architecture

    7. Procedure Call Instructions • Stacks • Call - Save State (push onto stack) • Save return address • Save registers • Return – Restore State (pop off stack) • Restore registers • Jump to return address Computer Architecture

    8. Pentium & PowerPC Operation Types • MMX • Designed for Multi-media tasks • SIMD (single-instruction, multiple-data) • Parallel processing feature • Focused on video & audio data Computer Architecture

    9. Byte order • Little-Endian vs. Big-Endian (pages 376-380) • Hexadecimal – 12345678 • Little-Endian • 78563412 • Big-Endian • 12345678 Computer Architecture

    10. Addressing Modes • Immediate • Direct • Indirect • Register • Register Indirect • Displacement • Stack Computer Architecture

    11. Immediate Addressing • Immediate • Operand is actually present in the instruction • Advantage – no memory reference • Disadvantage – limited magnitude opcode, operand operand IS the data Computer Architecture

    12. Direct Addressing • Direct • The address of the data is located in the operand • Advantage – Simple • Disadvantage – Limited Address Space opcode, address operand contains address in main memory • Issue – how many bits available for address? Computer Architecture

    13. Indirect Addressing • Indirect • Operand is an address in memory which contains the ACTUAL address of the real operand • Advantage – large address space • Disadvantage – multiple memory references opcode, address-of-address operand contains the address of the operand • Issue – multiple memory references / clock cycles Computer Architecture

    14. Register Addressing • Register • Operand field refers to a register • Advantage – No memory reference • Disadvantage – Limited address space opcode, register the data for the instruction is stored in a register Computer Architecture

    15. Register Indirect Addressing • Register Indirect • Register contains address of operand • Advantage – Large address space • Disadvantage – Extra memory reference opcode, register register contains address of operand Computer Architecture

    16. Displacement Addressing • Displacement – 3 kinds • Relative addressing • Base-register addressing • Indexing • Combines direct addressing with register indirect addressing • Operand address is determined by adding a direct address to an address in a register Computer Architecture

    17. Displacement – Relative Addressing • Relative Addressing • Direct address is assumed to be PC • Register contains off-set (2’s compliment) • Advantage – flexibility • Disadvantage – complexity opcode, register address in register is added to (or subtracted from) Program Counter Computer Architecture

    18. Displacement – Base-Register • Base-Register • Offset address is in operand • Base register contains ‘base’ address • Final address is direct address PLUS address in base register • Advantage – very flexible • Disadvantage – complex opcode, register, address Computer Architecture

    19. Displacement - Indexing • Indexing • Base address is in operand • Displacement address is in register • Final address is base address PLUS displacement in displacement register • Advantage – very flexible • Disadvantage – complex opcode, register, address Computer Architecture

    20. Displacement - Indexing • Autoindexing • Displacement register is automatically updated (incremented) after each reference Effective Address = Address + (Register) (Register) = (Register + 1) • Can have postindexing & preindexing Computer Architecture

    21. Stack Addressing • Stack • All data is on a stack • Advantage – no memory reference • Disadvantage – limited applicability Computer Architecture

    22. Instruction Formats • Instruction Length • Memory size • Memory organization • Bus structure • CPU complexity • CPU speed Computer Architecture

    23. Instruction Formats • Allocation of Bits • Opcode • Addressing modes • Register versus memory • Number of registers • Address range Computer Architecture

    24. Instruction format – PDP-8 • PDP-8 • 12 bit instructions (12 bit word size) • 3 bit Opcode • 1 bit Direct or Indirect • 1 bit Page 0 or current page • 7 bits Displacement (2 * 128 words) • http://www.faqs.org/faqs/dec-faq/pdp8/section-3.html Computer Architecture

    25. Instruction Formats – PDP-10 • PDP-10 • 36 bit instructions (36 bit word) • 9 bits Opcode • 4 bits Register • 1 bit Indirection • 4 bits Index register • 18 bits address (262,144 words) • http://www.inwap.com/pdp10/opcodes.html Computer Architecture

    26. Instruction Formats • Variable-Length Instructions • PDP-11 • 16 bit minicomputer • 13 different instruction formats • 16 bits to 48 bits per instruction • http://www.village.org/pdp11/faq.pages/PDPinst.html • VAX • 1 or 2 byte opcode • 0 to 6 operands • 1 byte to 37 byte instruction size Computer Architecture

    27. Instruction Formats • Pentium • 0 to 4 byte Prefixes • 1 or 2 byte Opcode • 0 or 1 or 2 byte Optional address specifier • 0,1,2, 4 byte - Optional displacement • 0,1,2,4 byte - Optional immediate field • http://www.laynetworks.com/Pentium_Instruction%20formats.htm Computer Architecture

    28. What you know now • Instructions Sets – Addressing Modes & Formats • Addressing • Immediate • Direct • Indirect • Register • Register Indirect • Displacement • Stack • Pentium & PowerPC Addressing Modes • Instruction Formats • Pentium & PowerPC Instruction Formats Computer Architecture

    29. Reading • Look at the various web pages presented in the slides. Get an idea of various architectures. Next Lecture • CPU Structure & Function Computer Architecture

    30. HomeworkWeek 11 Available on the web page! Computer Architecture