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The American Revolution. History Journal. 37 The American Revolution (In the beginning…) 38- 41 Battles of the Revolution 43 Strengths and Weaknesses of the Continental Army and the British Army Page 38-41, we will make into a flipbook. When we last left our heroes….

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history journal
History Journal
  • 37 The American Revolution (In the beginning…)
  • 38- 41 Battles of the Revolution
  • 43 Strengths and Weaknesses of the Continental Army and the British Army
  • Page 38-41, we will make into a flipbook
when we last left our heroes
When we last left our heroes…
  • They had just declared independence in the Second Continental Congress.
  • Colonists felt that if there was

a fight with England,

it would be quick. Few

expected a war.

  • They were wrong!
midnight ride
MIDNIGHT RIDE
  • Spies were busy on both sides!
  • British general heard that there was a large supply on guns and ammo in Concord.
  • American’s heard that the British were likely to begin fighting.
  • Paul Revere
  • “One if by land, two if by sea.”
lexington and concord
Lexington and Concord
  • British hear rumor that…
    • Sam Adams and John Hancock are in Lexington
    • There is a large store of weapons and ammo in Concord
  • They decide to arrest Adams and Hancock and take control of the weapons.

Page 157

lexington and concord1
Lexington and Concord
  • April 19, 1775
  • 700 British troops reach Lexington
  • Met with 70 militia who refuse to give up.
  • No one knows who fired the first shot (“The Shot Heard Round the World” – Ralph Waldo Emerson)
  • Within a few minutes, 8 militia men are dead.
  • The British march on to Concord, but by then, the 4000 Minutemen and militia had arrived and line the road from Concord to Lexington.
  • The British were in trouble…
lexington and concord2
Lexington and Concord
  • The British are forced back to Boston.
  • Although technically the first shots of the Revolution, war had NOT yet been officially declared.
choosing sides
Choosing sides
  • Forced colonists to choose sides
    • Loyalist
    • Patriot
we need an army
WE NEED AN ARMY!
  • Militia
  • Minutemen
  • Green Mountain Boys
    • Led by Ethan Allen
    • Militia in the New York/New Hampshire Area (Vermont)
    • Captured Fort Ticonderoga which had large supply of weapons.
  • Second Continental Congress officially forms an army with Washington as it’s general.
  • Authorize the printing of paper money to pay troops.

Page 160

slide11

Good Afternoon, Scholars!

Make sure you have your supplies!

Get started on this journal prompt…

In your journal, on the back of the BUNKER HILL page…

Look at this picture. Based on the artist’s view, who do you think won the Battle of Bunker Hill?

now back to our story
Now Back to Our Story…
  • As the founding fathers continue to debate the exact path to independence, our brave soldiers continue to battle…

THE REDCOATS!

And speaking of Redcoats…

fun fact
FUN FACT!
  • The British uses cochineal bugs to create the red dye for their coats. The insects produce an acid that protects them from predators. The acid was used as a dye. (Scary fact – it’s still used today in some types of food coloring and dyes!)
battle of bunker hill
Battle of Bunker Hill
  • June 16, 1775
  • Militiamen seize Bunker Hill and Breed’s Hill (they overlook the city of Boston!)
  • Build a fort on the hill
  • British worry about the fort and decide to attack
  • British marched up Breed’s Hill to attack
  • Tug of war battle
  • The colonists begin to run out of gunpowder.

WHAT WILL THEY DO????

slide15

Battle of Bunker Hill

  • “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes.”
    • Colonel William Prescott OR General Israel Putnam
    • Needed to save ammunition
  • On the third attempt, the redcoats finally take the hill.
  • Redcoats win but 1000 were killed or wounded compared to only 400 militia.
  • Considered a moral victory for Continental Army because they held off the world’s most powerful army.
boston
Boston
  • When George Washington takes command of the army (just after Bunker Hill) he finds an unorganized, undisciplined army. He also finds that there are only 36 barrels of gunpowder left…
      • FOR THE WHOLE ARMY (Each soldier could fire nine shots!)
  • He starts a rumor that they have 1800 barrels.
  • He sends word to friends in Fort Ticonderoga that he needs some big guns. (Everyone say Ticonderoga!)
  • Remember the Green Mountain Boys? Told you they were important!
boston1
Boston
  • They load all of the heavy artillery from the fort onto sleds and drag them to Boston.
  • When the British soldiers in Boston wake up on March, 1776, they see all of that artillery aimed at the city.
  • The British decide to abandon Boston and leave with 100 ships and 9000 troops!
slide18

The Olive Branch Petition

  • A year has passed since our brave young men refused to lay down their weapons in Lexington and colonists have STILL not officially declared independence.
  • The Second Continental Congress makes one more attempt to resolve their issues with England.
  • They send a petition to King George asking him for a resolution.
  • But it’s too late!
slide19

The Olive Branch Petition

  • King George has already heard about Bunker Hill and refuses to even look at the petition.
  • He declares the colonists in “full rebellion” and vows to “bring the traitors to justice”.
  • And as we all remember, being found a traitor meant…
  • DEATH!
good afternoon scholars

Good Afternoon, Scholars!

Please update your table of contents. I know the number seems wrong, but I will explain after the bell.

Please make sure everything is GLUED in.

the continental army strengths
THE CONTINENTAL ARMYStrengths
  • Patriotism
    • Our lives for our country
  • George Washington
    • Experienced leader
    • Inspiring leader
  • Help from abroad
    • France
    • Marquis de Lafayette, a French nobleman believed in the American cause and persuaded the French King to send troops to help Americans.
the continental army weaknesses
THE CONTINENTAL ARMYWeaknesses
  • Not everyone supported the war so raising an army was difficult.
  • Limited Training
  • Limited Numbers
    • Only had one year termsof service
    • Limited number of troops at any given time
  • Limited Supplies
    • Blankets
    • Food
    • Uniforms/Shoes
    • Guns and Ammo
the british army strengths
THE BRITISH ARMYStrengths
  • Strength in numbers
    • 50,000 soldiers
    • 30,000 Hessians
  • Powerful navy
  • Help from abroad
    • Hessians
    • Mercenaries from Hesse, Germany
the british army weaknesses
THE BRITISH ARMYWeaknesses
  • Location, location, location…
    • Sending troops and supplies from Great Britain to North America was costly
  • Who Cares??
    • Not passionate about the cause
  • Poor leadership
fun fact1
FUN FACT!
  • Because of the horrible conditions, many wives followed their husbands into the battlefields.
    • They cooked, did laundry, and nursed sick and wounded soldiers.
  • A few women actually fought.
    • Deborah Sampson dressed as a man and enlisted. She fought in several battles.
the declaration of independence
THE Declaration of Independence
  • Even after all the battles and mistreatment by the British, many colonists were still afraid of actually declaring independence.
  • Thomas Paine writes Common Sense to persuade colonists to push for independence.
  • A week after the British leave Boston, Thomas Jefferson writes the first draft of the Declaration of Independence.
  • Our founding fathers finally agree to the wording and sign it on July 4, 1776.
the declaration of independence1
THE Declaration of Independence
  • It seems like such a small act to sign your name to a piece of paper.
  • But this was no ordinary document.
  • So, what were these men sacrificing by signing their names to this piece of paper?
  • Their lives -Their fortunes -Their sacred honor
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kX-APfe3i8Q
war it s on
WAR…IT’S ON!
  • Now that the colonists have declared their independence, they have to FIGHT for their independence.
  • The war kicks into full gear!
slide30

As we close today, Look at this painting titled “The Signing of the Declaration of Independence”. turn your journal to the Declaration of Independence Page. Write a response to the following question: How does this painting reflect the information we heard in “Our Lives, Our Fortunes, Our Sacred Honor”?

trouble for the continental army
Trouble for the Continental Army
  • Britain wants to take control of New York since it’s the center of Colonial economy.
  • British attack Washington’s army on Long Island and inflict heavy casualties.
  • The loss is so bad that the British general believes they’ve pretty much won the war and he expects Washington to surrender.

But Washington is not giving in!

more trouble
More Trouble…
  • He retreats and escapes to Philadelphia.
  • The British occupy New York City for the rest of the war.
  • Washington is humiliated by the loss.
  • This is the first of many losses for the Continental Army.
  • Many soldiers begin to leave and many others avoided joining the army.
  • Soldiers are starving and freezing.
  • The Continental Army was at it’s lowest point.
more trouble1
More Trouble…
  • Washington gathers the troops and inspires them to follow his plan for a surprise attack.
slide35

Crossing the Delaware

  • On Dec 25th 1776 Washington launched a surprise attack crossing the frozen Delaware River.
  • He captured over 800 Hessian prisoners without losing one man.
battle of saratoga
Battle of Saratoga
  • British General Burgoyne plans to cut off New England from the rest of the colonies.
  • But, Daniel Morgan and the colonists have another idea.
  • American General Horatio Gates surrounds Burgoyne’s remaining forces at Saratoga, New York.
  • Uh oh!!!
battle of saratoga1
Battle of Saratoga
  • Burgoyne surrenders his entire army to the Americans!
  • Saratoga is a turning point in the war.
  • Benjamin Franklin helps negotiate the Treaty of Alliance with France and Spain.
valley forge
Valley forge
  • Washington and his men spend the long cold winter of 1777-1778 in Valley Forge Pennsylvania.
  • The American troops are in desperate need of food and warm clothing.
  • Marquis de Lafayette uses his own money to buy men clothes.
  • Spent the winter training.
  • When Spring came, the men were ready to test their training.
yorktown
Yorktown
  • British General Lord Cornwallis moves his troops to Virginia to set up camp and wait for reinforcements.
  • Washington sets the ultimate trap. James Armistead (a slave) was a double spy and gave Washington information.
  • Washington has over 16,000 American and French soldiers ready to fight
  • Cornwallis was not impressed, he opted to board British ships and sail to New York.
  • But before he can leave, a fleet of French battleships sailed into the Bay.
  • Cornwallis is trapped!
slide43

Trapped, Lord Cornwallis surrenders on Oct 17, 1781.

The Americans win their INDEPENDENCE!

treaty of paris 1783
Treaty of Paris 1783
  • Signed in Paris by representatives of the United States and Great Britain. It has three main parts.

1. Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent nation

2. United States gains all land east of the Mississippi River from Canada to Florida

3. U.S. agrees to return all property taken from Loyalists.

costs of the war
Costs of the War
  • Eight years of fighting
  • Fatalities and Injuries
    • An estimated 25,700 Americans die(10,000 British soldiers dead)
    • 1400 are missing
    • 8200 are wounded
  • Soldiers left with no money
    • Sold land in west for food and basic needs
  • American war debt - $27 million
impact of the war
Impact of the War
  • Between 60,000 and 100,000

Loyalists leave American…mostly to Canada.

  • Americans wanted more religious freedom and ended practice of using taxes to support churches.
  • Conflict between slavery and freedom
  • What will the new nation look like??
warm up your last flap is labeled vocabulary copy this
Warm up: Your last flap is labeled Vocabulary. Copy this!
  • Patriots – Those who sided with the rebels and wanted independence from Britain.
  • Loyalists – Colonists loyal to King George III.
  • Guerrillas – Small bands of fighters who use surprise raids and hit and run attacks.
  • Militia – Volunteer army of regular citizens.
  • Minutemen – American soldiers who were ready to fight with in 60 seconds.
  • National/Continental Army – The American army during the American Revolution.