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The American Revolution. Patriots. American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won. Loyalists (Tories). Colonists who chose to side with the British Did not think unfair taxes were a good reason for rebellion

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The American Revolution

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    1. The American Revolution

    2. Patriots • American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won

    3. Loyalists (Tories) • Colonists who chose to side with the British • Did not think unfair taxes were a good reason for rebellion • Strongest loyalist support was in the Carolinas and Georgia • Weakest loyalist support was in New England • Many fled the colonies and for England

    4. Neutral • Taking no side in a conflict

    5. British Advantages • Most powerful Navy in the world • Huge population advantage • More experienced military • Plenty of financial support

    6. American Advantages • Fighting on land they knew very well • Were eager to defend their land • British had to ship soldiers and supplies thousands of miles across the Atlantic Ocean • British depended heavily on mercenaries

    7. Mercenaries • Hired soldiers

    8. Hessians • What the Americans called the British mercenaries. • Name comes from the region in Germany most of them were from • Main goal for winning the war was money

    9. Recruit • Enlist

    10. Margaret Corbin • Followed husband when he joined the Continental Army. • Took his place on the battlefield when he was killed

    11. Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley“Molly Pitcher” • Followed husband when he joined the Continental Army • Became known as “Molly Pitcher” for carrying water pitchers around the battlefield for soldiers

    12. Deborah Sampson • Disguised herself as a man and joined the army to fight

    13. Thomas Paine • Wrote Common Sense prior to the war • The issue was freedom not taxes • Wrote The American Crisis early in the war • “These are the times that try men’s souls” • “The harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph”

    14. Nathan Hale • Teacher from Connecticut • Hero at the battle of Long Island despite the American defeat • Spied on the British as a Dutch schoolteacher • Discovered by British and hung • Last words were “I only regret that I have one life to lose for my country”

    15. African Americans in the War • Many fought with the British after being offered freedom to fight against the Patriots • General George Washington asked to have free African Americans enlisted • Southern states feared a revolt from armed African Americans because of their large slave population • Rhode Island was the first state to have an all African American regiment • Every state eventually state enlisted African Americans except South Carolina

    16. Christmas Night 1776 • British soldiers were taking a break from fighting because of the harsh winter. • Washington led his men across an icy Delaware River and attacked a group of Hessian soldiers. • Americans used momentum from this victory to defeat the British again at Princeton

    17. Benedict Arnold • Led the Americans to victory in Albany

    18. Saratoga • Americans, led by General Horatio Gates, defeated the British, led by General John Burgoyne, forcing them to surrender • Showed European powers that the Americans might win and led to support from other nations who hated Britain

    19. France • Originally only gave money secretly to the Americans. • After the Battle of Saratoga they officially supported the Americans. • Began to send money as well as equipment to assist the Americans.

    20. Spain • Did not officially recognize America as a nation until after the Revolutionary War. • Sent troops to fight the British • Forced the British to pay attention to two enemies. • Defeated the British in the Mississippi Valley and along the Gulf of Mexico

    21. Netherlands • Declared war with Britain • Loaned money to the Americans

    22. Valley Forge • Winter camp for George Washington and the Continental Army in the winter of 1778 • Army suffered because of a lack of food, clothing, blankets, shelter and shoes • Washington’s wife Martha helped by making clothes for the troops and caring for the sick • Greatest challenge was keeping the army together • Many men deserted the army

    23. Deserted • To leave without permission

    24. Marquis de Lafayette • French nobleman who joined the Continental Army after reading the Declaration of Independence • Spent the winter at Valley Forge with the Continental Army • Became a trusted advisor to General Washington

    25. Friedrich von Steuben • Former German officer who helped turn the Continental Army into an effective fighting unit. • Drilled the Continental Army in proper military technique during the winter at Valley Forge

    26. Causes of French-American Alliance • Longstanding hostility between Britain and France • Conflict between Britain and France during the French and Indian War • Victory at Saratoga boosts French confidence in Patriots

    27. Effects of French-American Alliance • France signed a treaty of alliance with the United States in 1778 • France lends money to the Continental Congress • France sends soldiers and ships to help American forces • Americans win indepedence

    28. Inflation • A continuous rise in the price of goods and services • Caused Congress to stop issuing paper money