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The American Revolution

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  1. The American Revolution

  2. Patriots • American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won

  3. Loyalists (Tories) • Colonists who chose to side with the British • Did not think unfair taxes were a good reason for rebellion • Strongest loyalist support was in the Carolinas and Georgia • Weakest loyalist support was in New England • Many fled the colonies and for England

  4. Neutral • Taking no side in a conflict

  5. British Advantages • Most powerful Navy in the world • Huge population advantage • More experienced military • Plenty of financial support

  6. American Advantages • Fighting on land they knew very well • Were eager to defend their land • British had to ship soldiers and supplies thousands of miles across the Atlantic Ocean • British depended heavily on mercenaries

  7. Mercenaries • Hired soldiers

  8. Hessians • What the Americans called the British mercenaries. • Name comes from the region in Germany most of them were from • Main goal for winning the war was money

  9. Recruit • Enlist

  10. Margaret Corbin • Followed husband when he joined the Continental Army. • Took his place on the battlefield when he was killed

  11. Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley“Molly Pitcher” • Followed husband when he joined the Continental Army • Became known as “Molly Pitcher” for carrying water pitchers around the battlefield for soldiers

  12. Deborah Sampson • Disguised herself as a man and joined the army to fight

  13. Thomas Paine • Wrote Common Sense prior to the war • The issue was freedom not taxes • Wrote The American Crisis early in the war • “These are the times that try men’s souls” • “The harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph”

  14. Nathan Hale • Teacher from Connecticut • Hero at the battle of Long Island despite the American defeat • Spied on the British as a Dutch schoolteacher • Discovered by British and hung • Last words were “I only regret that I have one life to lose for my country”

  15. African Americans in the War • Many fought with the British after being offered freedom to fight against the Patriots • General George Washington asked to have free African Americans enlisted • Southern states feared a revolt from armed African Americans because of their large slave population • Rhode Island was the first state to have an all African American regiment • Every state eventually state enlisted African Americans except South Carolina

  16. Christmas Night 1776 • British soldiers were taking a break from fighting because of the harsh winter. • Washington led his men across an icy Delaware River and attacked a group of Hessian soldiers. • Americans used momentum from this victory to defeat the British again at Princeton

  17. Benedict Arnold • Led the Americans to victory in Albany

  18. Saratoga • Americans, led by General Horatio Gates, defeated the British, led by General John Burgoyne, forcing them to surrender • Showed European powers that the Americans might win and led to support from other nations who hated Britain

  19. France • Originally only gave money secretly to the Americans. • After the Battle of Saratoga they officially supported the Americans. • Began to send money as well as equipment to assist the Americans.

  20. Spain • Did not officially recognize America as a nation until after the Revolutionary War. • Sent troops to fight the British • Forced the British to pay attention to two enemies. • Defeated the British in the Mississippi Valley and along the Gulf of Mexico

  21. Netherlands • Declared war with Britain • Loaned money to the Americans

  22. Valley Forge • Winter camp for George Washington and the Continental Army in the winter of 1778 • Army suffered because of a lack of food, clothing, blankets, shelter and shoes • Washington’s wife Martha helped by making clothes for the troops and caring for the sick • Greatest challenge was keeping the army together • Many men deserted the army

  23. Deserted • To leave without permission

  24. Marquis de Lafayette • French nobleman who joined the Continental Army after reading the Declaration of Independence • Spent the winter at Valley Forge with the Continental Army • Became a trusted advisor to General Washington

  25. Friedrich von Steuben • Former German officer who helped turn the Continental Army into an effective fighting unit. • Drilled the Continental Army in proper military technique during the winter at Valley Forge

  26. Causes of French-American Alliance • Longstanding hostility between Britain and France • Conflict between Britain and France during the French and Indian War • Victory at Saratoga boosts French confidence in Patriots

  27. Effects of French-American Alliance • France signed a treaty of alliance with the United States in 1778 • France lends money to the Continental Congress • France sends soldiers and ships to help American forces • Americans win indepedence

  28. Inflation • A continuous rise in the price of goods and services • Caused Congress to stop issuing paper money