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The American Revolution

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  1. The American Revolution Short Term Causes

  2. REMEMBER….. • After the French and Indian War Britain has a huge war debt • How is Britain going to pay off it’s war debt???? 1. Britain believes colonists should help pay for war 2. Britain will force colonists to pay for war by imposing taxes on specific goods 3. Britain will begin paying much closer attention to the behavior of the colonists

  3. Proclamation of 1763 • British drew imaginary line along Appalachian Mountains • Colonists forbidden to settle west of line • Britain trying to physically control the colonists

  4. Opposing View points British Colonial Colonists angry because they now had to pay for the British soldiers sent to enforce the law Colonists ignored the proclamation and moved West anyway • Clashes with Native Americans convinced British officials that colonists should not be allowed to settle on Western frontier

  5. Sugar Act 1764 • Tax on molasses entering colonies • Replaces a higher tax on molasses that was ignored by colonists • Sugar Act tax is now enforced by British

  6. Opposing Viewpoints British Colonial Colonists did not want to pay the tax and avoided it by smuggling in molasses Bribed British officials to look the other way • The French and Indian War cost a lot of money and it was the colonists that gained most from war • Colonists should help pay

  7. Stamp Act 1765 • New duties on legal documents (wills, diplomas, marriage papers, newspapers, almanacs, playing cards • Items had to have stamp indicating tax had been paid • Colonists very angry “No taxation without representation”

  8. Opposing Viewpoints British Colonists Colonists angry Taxes went against the principle that there should be no taxation without representation Idea goes back to Magna Carta Only colonists or elected assemblies had the right to pass taxes They were not represented in Parliament Colonists were willing to pay taxes if passed by colonial legislature • Britain had paid a lot of money to protect the colonies against the French • People in Britain were paying much higher taxes than the colonists

  9. Colonist Reaction • Delegates from all colonies sent representatives to NYC • Drew a petition that rejected the Stamp Act and said that Parliament had no right to tax the colonists • Colonists boycotted British goods • Trade fell, British merchants suffered • Stamp Act repealed • What is the main reason Britain is imposing all of these various taxes?

  10. Townshend Acts 1767 • British taxed glass, paper, tea, lead, mint • Colonists should pay taxes • Parliament did not have the right to tax colonists without their consent

  11. Opposing Viewpoints British Colonial Parliament did not have right to tax colonists without their consent Writs of assistance violated rights as citizens • If British pay taxes then Colonists should pay taxes • Writs of assistance allowed British officials to check ships for smuggled goods

  12. Colonist Reaction • Non importation agreements - Colonists would not import any goods taxed by the Townshend Acts (glass, paper, tea, lead) • British profit from colonial trade severely decreased by colonial boycott (What is meant by boycott?) • Sons of Liberty/Daughters of Liberty – groups of angry colonists formed to protest British taxation

  13. Boston Massacre 1770 • Outside of customs house in Boston, British soldiers fire on crowd of unarmed colonists killing five people

  14. Opposing Viewpoints British Colonists Unarmed colonists were killed Firing into crowd was unnecessary More bitterness towards British • Crowd provoked the soldiers • Crowd threw rocks, snowballs etc

  15. Outcome of Boston Massacre • John Adams defends British soldiers at trial • British soldiers found not guilty because they had been provoked by crowd • Committee of Correspondence – led by Samuel Adams – members wrote letters and pamphlets keeping all colonists informed of events in MA • Townshend Acts repealed with the exception of tax on tea

  16. Tea Act 1773