Chapter 3 Colonies Take Root
Section 1 The First English Settlements
England Seeks Colonies • In the late 1500s, England began to establish colonies in North America • to provide markets for English products • to get important raw materials • The first two colonies on RoanokeIsland failed. • 1585: Abandoned a year later • 1587: vanished without a trace
Founding Jamestown • 1607: Virginia Company of London founds Jamestown on Chesapeake Bay. • First permanent English settlement
Founding Jamestown • Many colonists spent their time looking for gold instead of doing work. • Not enough food for the winter • By 1608, only 38 colonists were still alive
Founding Jamestown • 1608: John Smith takes charge and draws up tough new rules. • Most important rule “he who works not, eats not.” • Conditions improved
Founding Jamestown • 1609: John Smith is injured and returns to England • Conditions worsened.
Founding Jamestown • Winter 1609–1610: The “starving time” • Powhatan refuses to supply colonists with food • By spring of 1610: only 60 colonists are still alive
Jamestown Prospers • 1612: Colonists planted tobacco, a crop native to the Americas • Tobacco was a source of income. • By the 1620s, farmers were selling all the tobacco they could grow.
Jamestown Prospers • 1619: The House of Burgesses meets for the first time. • Marked the start of representative government in North America
Jamestown Prospers • Summer of 1619: Dutch ship arrived in Virginia from West Indies • On board were 20 enslaved Africans
Plymouth Colony • 1607–1609: Several groups of English Separatists settled in Holland • to separate from the Church of England • to practice religion in their own way
Plymouth Colony • September 1620: One group of Separatists the Pilgrims, left Holland and landed in Plymouth. Before going ashore, 41 adult Males sign the Mayflower Compact. • It is the first document in which American colonists claimed a right to govern themselves
Let’s Think: • Why was the Mayflower Compact important?
Let’s Think: • Why was the Mayflower Compact important? • It was the first document in which Americans claimed the right to self government.
Section 2 The New England Colonies
The New England Colonies • Geography of New England: • Thin, rocky soil made farming difficult. • Just off the long, jagged coastline are some of the richest fishing grounds in the world. • The long winters and short, warm summers meant that the colonists caught fewer diseases and lived longer than colonists in Virginia.
Puritans in Massachusetts Bay • Who They Were : People who wanted to reform, not split from the Church of England • Why They Left England:1620s: King Charles I persecuted them. They believed their way of life would provide an example to others
Events • 1630s: 900 Puritans formed the Massachusetts Bay Company • Led by John Winthrop, who was a respected landowner and lawyer • Established Boston and other settlements • Elected an assembly known as the General Court • Only adult males of the Puritan Church could vote. • By 1634, 20,000 people lived in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
New Colonies • Disagreements about religion led to new colonies. • The Puritans did not believe in toleration. • Roger Williams: Believed Puritans should split from the Church of Englandand pay Native Americans for land. Founded Providence, Rhode Island and decided that the colony would have no established church.
Rhode Island Roger Williams
New Colonies • Anne Hutchinson: Questioned some Puritan teachings and was expelled from Massachusetts. In 1642, she traveled to New York State.
New Colonies • Thomas Hooker: Disagreed with Puritan Leaders. Founded Hartford, Connecticut. In 1639, colonists drew up the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut.
Connecticut Thomas Hooker
New Colonies • John Wheelwright: Shared some of Hutchinson’s views. Founded Exeter, New Hampshire. In 1680, New Hampshire became a separate colony.
New Hampshire John Wheelwright
Let's Think: • How was New England's environment closely related to its economy?
Let's Think: • How was New England's environment closely related to its economy? • Forests products were used in shipbuilding. Also, fishing and whaling were big industries.
Section 3 The Middle Colonies
Let’s Think: • What conditions in the Middle Colonies favored farming?
Let’s Think: • What conditions in the Middle Colonies favored farming? • The climate was warm and the soil was fertile.
New York • Began as a Dutch colony named New Netherland • Economically successful because of farming and the fur trade. • Swedish, French, Portuguese, and English settlers were hostile to Dutch rule. • Tension between England and Holland because they were rivals at trade • New Netherland separated England’s northern colonies from its colonies farther south. • In 1664, King Charles II gave New Netherland to his brother James, the Duke of York. • New Netherland became New York, and New Amsterdam became New York City.
New Jersey • Colony was established in 1665 when southern New York was split off to form a new colony. • New Jersey began as a proprietary colony, but in 1702, it became a royal colony.
Pennsylvania • Founder: William Penn • Granted a charter from King Charles II in 1681 • Offered religious freedom to Quakers • Penn’s “holy experiment”: to create a colony in which people from different religious backgrounds could live peacefully • In 1682, Penn’s Frame of Government for Pennsylvania granted the colony an elected assembly and freedom of reigion • Economy: • Called America’s breadbasket because it produced so much wheat • Diversity: • Many settlers in the backcountry were Scotch-Irish (non-English) • Germans described themselves as Deutsch and became known as the Pennsylvania Dutch
Delaware • First European settlers were Swedish. • Penn’s charter included Delaware, but Delaware settlers did not want to send delegates to a distant assembly. • In 1704, Delaware became a separate colony.
Section 4 The Southern Colonies
The Southern Colonies • States south of the Mason-Dixon line included Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. • Geography: coastal area called the Tidewater • Why the Mason-Dixon line became important: after the American Revolution, it was the dividing line between northern states where slavery was abolished and southern states persisted
Let’s Think: • What conditions favored the development of a plantation economy?
Let’s Think: • What conditions favored the development of a plantation economy? • The climate provided a long growing season that farmers used to raise tobacco and rice. Both of these crops required many workers in the field.
Virginia • 1640 to 1670: The number of settlers grew from 10,000 to 40,000 • 1607 to 1675: The number of Native Americans shrank from 8,000 to 2,000 • Wealthy farmers bought most of the good farmland near the coast. • Poor colonists moved inland and fought Native Americans over farmland • Bacon’s Rebellion: Nathaniel Bacon led an attack on Native Americans and burned Jamestown. After Bacon died, the governor hanged 23 followers, but did not stop settlers from taking Native American lands
Maryland • 1632: George Calvert set up a colony where Catholics could live safely • Tensions grew between Catholic and Protestant settlers • 1649: Lord Baltimore helped pass the Act of Toleration • It welcomed all Christians and gave all adult male Christians the right to vote and hold office. It was an important step toward religious toleration in North America.
Carolinas • 1663: Settlers from Virginia moved south beyond the colonies borders and King Charles II granted a charter for a new colony to be established there • North Carolina grew slowly because it lacked harbors and rivers for ships. Settlers produced tobacco and lumber. • South Carolina grew quickly. Settlers produced sugar and rice, crops that depended on slave labor.
Georgia • Founded because: • England feared Spain was expanding its Florida colony northward. • James Oglethorpe and other wealthy Englishmen wanted a colony that would protect debtors from imprisonment.
Change in the Southern Colonies • 1700s: The Southern Colonies developed two distinct ways of life .
The Tidewater Region • Economy dominated by plantations • A society of slaveholders and enslaved. • Divided wealthy people from poor people, who lived in the backcountry.
The Backcountry • Cut off from the coast by poor roads and long distance • Women and girls worked the fields with men and boys. • People believed that the colonial government did not care about them.
Section 5 Spanish Colonies on the Borderlands
Spanish Florida and St. Augustine • Built in 1565 • Why Founded: Spain feared that France might take over the area • Why It’s Important: First permanent European Settlement in the United States • In 1693: To weaken English colonies, Spanish offered protection and land to enslaved Africans who escaped to Florida and helped defend the colony