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Text types: Argumentation
1 Argumentation Vs persuasion, explanation and demonstration Argumentation deals with a controversial topic, open for discussion.
2 Persuasion (e.g., in advertising) aims at ↓ inducing behaviour obtaining resulting advantages How? using all available means
3 Argumentation aims at ↓ changing beliefs How? using rational means (i.e. discourse)
4 Explanation The subject of an explanatory discourse is not contested, i.e. there is no argumentation because this subject is not contested
5 Demonstration aims at ↓ providing proof by means of normative and strictly specified rules (reasoning and formal logic)
6 Natural argumentation canmake use of formallogic and "recognized" knowledge but itrestsprimarily upon sharedbeliefs (supposedlysharedbeliefs)
7. ORGANIZE YOUR TEXT Writingprocesses: • Processes of conceptualization, i.e. activation and organization of ideas; • Processesassociatedwith the linguistictranslating, or formulating, of concepts. Problemsat the transition from 1 to 2: why? structure of conceptualrepresentation not necessarilyunidimensional whereas structure of languagenecessarilylinear.
8 However: somelinguistictoolsallow us to structure the linguisticsequence: e.g. syntactic subordination and coordination, punctuation, anaphorae, connectives. Argumentative writingrequires the use of complexlinguistictools, especiallyat the structural level of the connexions to beestablishedbetween the content elements.
9. Global requirements? • Recognizing the existence of a conflict between A and B, i.e. recognizing the presence of arguments • Taking a claim • Supporting the claim • Assigning a (minimal) value to the opposite claim • Restrictions to both opposing claims
10 Goingfrom the initial claim to the contradictory claim in a coherentmanner, imposes to respect somegeneralrules of textcontinuity and progression. The writer has to ensure the argumentative congruence of successive arguments: - arguments presenting the same orientation shouldbecoordinated, - arguments withopposite orientation shouldbelinked by an opposite or concessive device. Sincethere are twodifferentthemes, there must bethematiccontinuity: - sentences evoking content 1 shouldbeconnected to claim 1, sentences evoking content 2 shouldbeconnected to claim 2.