21st Century College English: Book 4 Unit 1: Text A Who Is Great?
Unit 1: Text A • Lead-in Activities • Text Organization • Reading & Writing Skills • Language Points • Guided Practice • Assignment
Lead-in Activities Questions for Discussion 1) In your opinion, what are the characteristics of great people? (the differences between great people and other people) 2) Tell your classmates about a great person you particularly admire
Paras. 1-3 Paras. 6-20 Paras. 4-5 Text Organization Who Is Great? I. Introduction of the topic by the examples of some great people II. Definition of being great. (Who is great?) III. Common characteristics of great people
Reading & Writing Skills 1. Reading skill: There are three levels of understanding and evaluation in efficient reading: a. To grasp the overall idea of main point of a given passage along with its general structure; b. To subject the specific details to closer examination and explain what something means and why it is introduced; c. To evaluate what the author has said, determine what conclusions might be drawn and what judgment could be passed on.
Reading & Writing Skills 2) Writing skill: This text is a magazine article which reports on the ideas of another book, When presenting ideas from another source, it is important to be clear about the source of your information and wording, Giving proper credit to your sources is called citation and the failure to do this is a serious offense known as plagiarism In presenting the ideas from Simonton’s book, the author of the article uses both direct quotation (repeating words from a source exactly and using quotation marks) and indirect quotation (repeating the ideas from a source, but putting them into one’s own words).
Language Points Text A: Who Is Great?
Language Points Who Is Great? 1 As a young boy, Albert Einstein did so poorly in school that teachers thought he was slow. The young Napoleon Bonaparte was just one of hundreds of artillery lieutenants in the French Army. And the teenage George Washington, with little formal education, was being trained not as a soldier but as a land surveyor. 2 Despite their unspectacular beginnings, each would go on to carve a place for himself in history. What was it that enabled them to become great? Were they born with something special? Or did their greatness have more to do with timing, devotion and, perhaps, an uncompromising personality?
Language Points 3For decades, scientists have been asking such questions. And, in the past few years, they have found evidence to help explain why some people rise above, while others — similarly talented, perhaps — are left behind. Their findings could have implications for us all.
Language Points 4Who is great? Defining who is great depends on how one measures success. But there are some criteria. “Someone who has made a lasting contribution to human civilization is great,” said Dean Keith Simonton, a professor of psychology at the University of California at Davis and author of the 1994 book Greatness: Who Makes History and Why. But he added a word of caution: “Sometimes great people don’t make it into history books. A lot of women achieved great things or were influential but went unrecognized.”
Language Points 5 In writing his book, Simonton combined historical knowledge about great figures with recent findings in genetics, psychiatry and the social sciences. The great figures he focused on include men and women who have won Nobel Prizes, led great nations or won wars, composed symphonies that have endured for centuries, or revolutionized science, philosophy, politics or the arts. Though he doesn’t have a formula to define how or why certain people rise above (too many factors are involved), he has come up with a few common characteristics.
Language Points 6 A “never surrender” attitude. If great achievers share anything, said Simonton, it is an unrelenting drive to succeed. “There’s a tendency to think that they are endowed with something super-normal,” he explained. “But what comes out of the research is that there are great people who have no amazing intellectual processes. It’s a difference in degree. Greatness is built upon tremendous amounts of study, practice and devotion.”
Language Points 7 He cited Winston Churchill, Britain’s prime minister during World War II, as an example of a risk-taker who would never give up. Thrust into office when his country’s morale was at its lowest, Churchill rose brilliantly to lead the British people. In a speech following the Allied evacuation at Dunkirk in 1940, he inspired the nation when he said, “We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end...We shall never surrender.”
Language Points 8 Can you be born great? In looking at Churchill’s role in history — as well as the roles of other political and military leaders — Simonton discovered a striking pattern: “Firstborns and only children tend to make good leaders in time of crisis: They’re used to taking charge. But middle-borns are better as peacetime leaders: They listen to different interest groups better and make the necessary compromises. Churchill, an only child, was typical. He was great in a crisis, but in peacetime he was not effective — not even popular.”
Language Points 9Timing is another factor. “If you took George Washington and put him in the 20th century he would go nowhere as a politician,” Simonton declared. “He was not an effective public speaker, and he didn’t like shaking hands with the public. On the other hand, I’m not sure Franklin Roosevelt would have done well in Washington’s time. He wouldn’t have had the radio to do his fireside chats.”
Language Points 10Can you be too smart? One surprise among Simonton’s findings is that many political and military leaders have been bright but not overly so. Beyond a certain point, he explained, other factors, like the ability to communicate effectively, become more important than innate intelligence as measured by an IQ test. The most intelligent U.S. Presidents, for example — Thomas Jefferson, Woodrow Wilson and John F. Kennedy — had a hard time getting elected, Simonton said, while others with IQs closer to the average (such as Warren G. Harding) won by landslides. While political and economic factors also are involved, having a genius IQ is not necessary to be a great leader.
Language Points 11In the sciences, those with “genius level” IQs do have a better chance at achieving recognition, added Simonton. Yet evidence also indicates that overcoming traditional ways of thinking may be just as important. 12 He pointed to one recent study where college students were given a set of data and were asked to see if they could come up with a mathematical relation. Almost a third did. What they did not know was that they had just solved one of the most famous scientific equations in history: the Third Law of Planetary Motion, an equation that Johannes Kepler came up with in 1618.
Language Points 13Kepler’s genius, Simonton said, was not so much in solving a mathematical challenge. It was in thinking about the numbers in a unique way — applying his mathematical knowledge to his observations of planetary motion. It was his boldness that set him apart. 14Love your work. As a child, Einstein became fascinated with the way magnets are drawn to metal. “He couldn’t stop thinking about this stuff,” Simonton pointed out. “He became obsessed with problems in physics by the time he was 16, and he never stopped working on them. It’s not surprising that he made major contributions by the time he was 26.”
Language Points 15“For most of us, it’s not that we don’t have the ability,” Simonton added, “it’s that we don’t devote the time. You have to put in the effort and put up with all the frustrations and obstacles.” 16 Like other creative geniuses, Einstein was not motivated by a desire for fame, said Simonton. Instead, his obsession with his work was what set him apart. 17 Where such drive comes from remains a mystery. But it is found in nearly all creative geniuses — whether or not their genius is acknowledged by contemporaries.
Language Points 18“Emily Dickinson was not recognized for her poetry until after her death,” said Simonton. “But she was not writing for fame. The same can be said ofJames Joyce, who didn’t spend a lot of time worrying about how many people would read Finnegans Wake.”
Language Points 19Today, researchers have evidence that an intrinsic passion for one’s work is a key to rising above. In a 1985 study at Brandeis University conducted by Teresa Amabile, now a professor of business administration at Harvard University, a group of professional writers — none famous — were asked to write a short poem. Each writer was then randomly placed in one of three groups: One group was asked to keep in mind the idea of writing for money; another was told to think about writing just for pleasure; and a third group was given no instruction at all.
Language Points 20The poems then were submitted anonymously to a panel of professional writers for evaluation. The poetry written by people who thought about writing for money ranked lowest. Those who thought about writing just for pleasure did the best. “Motivation that comes from enjoying the work makes a significant difference,” Amabile said.
Text-related information Text-related information Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1814, is known in history as Napoleon I. In 1804-1805, a European coalition was formed against Napoleon. The defeat at the battle of Waterloo in 1815 ended his rule. He spent the rest of his life in exile on St. Helena.
carve 1. form sth. by cutting away material from wood or stone 2. build one’s (career, reputation, etc.) by hard work Examples: • The pot was carved out of a single piece of stone. • The new airline hopes to carve (out) a place for itself in the European market.
rise above — become successful or outstanding Examples: • Justin rose above and did well in his classes. • A woman who can rise above (such difficulties) is obviously exceptional.
Text-related information Text-related information Keith Simonton Dr. Keith Simonton is professor of Psychology at the University of California at Davis. He is on the editorial board of the Creativity Research Journal, Leadership Quarterly, Review of General Psychology, Journal of Creative Behavior, etc.
Translation Sometimes great people don’t make it into history books. A lot of women achieved great things or were influential but went unrecognized. Key: 有时候伟人并没有被载入史册。许多女性取得了巨大成就，或者颇具影响力，但却没有得到承认。 Translate the sentence: ?
great figures — great people Examples: • He was a great figure in the independent struggle. • He is a great figure in the anti-Japanese war.
revolutionize — vt. completely change Examples: • Newton’s discoveries revolutionized physics. • These time-saving techniques could revolutionize your life.
be endowed with — naturally have a good quality, ability, feature, etc. Examples: • She is endowed with intelligence as well as beauty. • The place is generally endowed with prehistoric sites.
come out of — result form; be produced Examples: • What came out of your long talks with the director? • The system has come out of artificial intelligence research.
Text-related information Text-related information The Allied evacuation at Dunkirk Dunkirk is an important commercial seaport, which was one of the great actions of World War II. From May 29 to June 4, small volunteer craft crossed the channel and evacuated 360,000, or three quarters, of the Allied forces in the face of a terrible artillery bombardment.
Translation We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end...We shall never surrender. Translate the sentence: ? Key: 我们不会衰退、失败。我们将坚持到底……我们永远不会屈服。 More to learn
flag and fail — is an example of alliteration, the use of two or more words close together which all begin with the same letter or sound to create a musical rhythm to the speech. Examples: • Time and tide wait for no man. • Round the rugged rocks the ragged rascal ran.
a striking pattern — a remarkable and rascal rule pattern — way in which something happens, moves or develops Examples: • behavior pattern • the pattern of family life has been changing over recent years.
he would go nowhere as a politician — he would not make a successful politician If you say that you are nowhere, that you are going or getting nowhere, or that something is getting you nowhere, you mean that all your efforts are not successful Examples: • He’ll go nowhere with her; she is too young. • I’m trying to persuade her to come but I’m getting nowhere.
Translation Beyond a certain point, he explained, other factors, like the ability to communicate effectively, become more important than innate intelligence as measured by an IQ test. Key: 他解释说，超过了某一阶段，其他因素，如有效沟通的能力等，便变得比通过智商测试得的先天智力更为重要了。 Translate the sentence: ?
Text-related information Text-related information Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) Woodrow Wilson was twenty-eighth President of the USA (1913-1921). He entered an academic career in 1883 and was appointed president of Princeton University in 1902.Wilson became a successful reform governor and earned a reputation that helped give him the Democratic nomination for the Presidency in 1912.
Translation Yet evidence also indicates that overcoming traditional ways of thinking may be just as important. Translate the sentence: ? Key: 然而，证据也表明克服传统是思维方式也许同样重要。
set … apart — make … different from or superior to others Examples: • His exceptional height set him apart from the rest of the man. • The attributes set humans apart from even the most intelligent machines.
obsessed — unable to think about something; too interested in or very worried about something Examples: • The government seems obsessed by the need for secrecy. • They’re both obsessed with the fear of getting AIDS.
put in — use or spend (effort, time, etc.) Examples: • You’ve obviously put a lot of work in your garden. • If I put in some extra hours today, I can have time off tomorrow.
put up with — tolerate or bear; be willing to accept (sth. unpleasant or not desirable.) Examples: • He’s finding it difficult to put up with the pain. • They have a lot to put up with.
Text-related information Text-related information Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) Emily Dickinson, a New England spinster whose work was unknown in her lifetime, was one of American’s Finest poets. Her three volume poem, Poems of Emily Dickinson, are brief and condensed, characterized by unusual rhyming and swift flashes of insight. The collection Letter of Emily Dickinson was published in 1958.
say of — express an opinion about Examples: • People say of him that he’s over 100. • It’s often said of the island that it is like a jewel set in the sea.
Translation Today, researchers have evidence that an intrinsic passion for one’s work is a key to rising above. Key: 如今，研究者们有证据证明，对自己工作的一种内在的热情是出类拔萃的一个关键所在。 Translate the sentence ?
a panel of professional writer — a small group of professional writers. a panel is a small group of people who are chosen, for example, to discuss or give their opinions on a particular subject in public, or to hear evidence and make a decision Examples: • The competition will be judged by a panel of experts. • Does the panel think that the proposed sale of these nationalized industries is beneficial to the country?
Text-related information Text-related information James Joyce (1882-1941) James Joyce, an Irish novelist and poet, was educated at a Jesuit boarding school and University College, Dublin. His masterpiece, Ulysses (1922),employs a variety of techniques, and ranges from extreme realism to fantasy. His important works also include Dubliners (1914) (collection of short stories), A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1914-1915), (autobiographical novel) and Finnegans Wake (1939).
Guided Practice —— • Vocabulary • Cloze • Translation • Structure Writing
Vocabulary 《读写教程 IV》: Ex. IV, p12