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Immunity. Tina Remes Walters 2011. Vocabulary . Pathogens Disease causing organism Antigens Complex molecules that are foreign to your body. Antibodies A protein made in response to a specific antigen. It attaches it and makes it useless.

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Tina Remes Walters


  • Pathogens

Disease causing organism

  • Antigens

Complex molecules that are foreign to your


  • Antibodies

A protein made in response to a specific

antigen. It attaches it and makes it useless.

your bodies defenses
Your Bodies Defenses
  • First Line of Defense

A. Skin

B. Respiratory System cilia, mucus, cough &


C. Digestive System saliva, enzymes,

hydrochloric acid, &


your bodies defenses1
Your Bodies Defenses
  • First Line of Defense

D. Circulatory System White blood cells

specific immunity
Specific Immunity
  • T Cells Special lymphocytes

1. Killer releases enzymes to

destroy foreign matter

2. Helper turns on immunity

B cells form antibodies

3. Memory B cells has antibodies for

specific pathogens and

remains in the blood.

two types of immunity
Two Types of Immunity



Antibodies that have been produces in another animal and introduced to yours.

Doesn’t last long.

  • Body makes it’s own antibodies in response to antigens.
  • Lasts long.

Process of giving a vaccine by injection or by mouth a form of the antigen that gives you active immunity.

  • Louis Pasteur

Microorganisms cause diseases in humans.

Pasteurization the process of heating a liquid

to a temperature that kills bacteria.

  • Chart on page 249

Human Diseases and their Agents

  • Bacteria slows down the normal growth and metabolic activities of body cells and tissues.
  • Viruses multiplies in the host. The host cells die. The viruses infect other cells and destroys tissues and can lead to death.
  • Pathogenic Protists and Fungus Infections destroys tissues and blood cells or interferes with normal body functions.
  • Koch’s Rules Steps used to identify

organisms that cause diseases.

  • Infectious Disease A disease that is caused

by a virus, bacterium, protist or

fungus and is spread from an

infected organism or the

environment to another


  • Infectious Disease (continued)

Can be spread thru direct contact, water, air,

on food, contact with a contaminated

object and by disease-carrying organisms

called biological vectors. Examples:

birds, cats, rats, flies, mosquitoes etc.

Human vectors people carrying the disease.

joseph lister
Joseph Lister

Found the connection between cleanliness and disease.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Found in blood and body fluids

Can not multiply outside of the body


Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Attacks the body’s immune system.

HIV causes AIDS.

Destroys T cells

how to fight diseases
How to fight Diseases
  • Wash with soap and water
  • Exercise
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Get enough rest
  • Go to the doctor for regular check ups and get your shots.
noninfectious diseases
Noninfectious Diseases
  • Diabetes
  • Allergies
  • Asthma
  • Cancer
  • Heart Disease

Can not be spread or “caught”.

chronic diseases
Chronic Diseases
  • Can not be spread from one person to another
  • Last a long time.
  • Some can be cured, others can’t.
chronic diseases1
Chronic Diseases
  • Allergies a strong reaction of the immune

system to a foreign substance.

Allergens substances that cause an

allergic reaction. Your

body releases

histamines in response.

chronic diseases2
Chronic Diseases
  • Diabetes Type 1 Your body doesn’t produce

enough or any insulin.

Type 2 Your body can not properly

process the insulin.

Symptoms: fatigue (tired),

excessive thirst, going to

the bathroom a lot,

tingling sensation in the

hands and feet.

chronic diseases3
Chronic Diseases
  • Cancer uncontrolled cell growth

Causes: genetic


exposure to chemicals

the sun

Prevention: limit exposure to

chemicals and the sun,

use sunscreen,

don’t smoke

healthy die