Immunity
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Immunity. It is the ability of the body to protect itself against foreign agents [I] Natural [II] Acquired immunity immunity. These are foreign agents protein or glycoprotein which produce an immune response e.g bacteria, viruses and foreign cells.

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Immunity
Immunity

  • It is the ability of the body to protect itself against foreign agents

  • [I] Natural [II] Acquired

  • immunity immunity


Immunity

  • Antigen

  • Haptens

These are substances with low molecular weight (<8000)

as drugs(pencillin) which combine with a protein in the

body and then behaves as a foreign protein and initiates

immune response.


I natural immunity
[I] Natural immunity

(1) Intact skin.

- Engulfing of foreign particles

(2) phagocytes

- Destruction and digestion of engulfed organisms

(3) The presence of

certain chemical structures as Lysozymes

  • 3-Natural Killer Cells

  • 4-Inflammation

  • 5-COMPLEMENT

  • 6-INTERFERONS


Ii acquired immunity
[II] Acquired immunity

  • It is of two types

1-Humoral immunity

2-Cell-mediated immunity:


Immunity

Memory T-cells

(Thymus)

Cellular immunity

T-lymphocytes

Cytotoxic

T-cell (T8)

Stim. (+)

Inh. (-)

Helper

T-cell (T4)

Supressor

T-cell

Bone marrow lymphocytes precursors

Stimulation

(+)

Inhibition

(-)

Humoral immunity

Plasma cells

B-lymphocytes

(liver-spleen)

Memory B-cells

Cell mediated immunity

IG’s M,A,G,E,D


Secondary immune response

The memory T & B cells persist in the body for years and readily converted to effector cells by exposure to the same antigen giving more rapid and greater immune response as in vaccination.

Secondary immune response


Non specific killer cells

NK and LAK cells readily converted to effector cells by exposure to the same antigen giving more rapid and greater immune response as in vaccination.

K cell

Activated macrophages

Eosinophils

Non-specific Killer Cells


Natural killer nk cells

also readily converted to effector cells by exposure to the same antigen giving more rapid and greater immune response as in vaccination. known as large granular lymphocytes (LGL)

kill infected and malignant cells

activated by IL2 and IFN-to become LAK cells

Natural Killer (NK) cells


Lymphokine activated killer lak cell

kills malignant cells readily converted to effector cells by exposure to the same antigen giving more rapid and greater immune response as in vaccination.

kills transformed and malignant cells

Lymphokine Activated Killer (LAK) cell

IFN

IFN

IL2

IL2


K cells
K Cells readily converted to effector cells by exposure to the same antigen giving more rapid and greater immune response as in vaccination.

  • morphologically undefined

  • have IgG Fc receptor

  • recognize antibody coated targets

  • could be NK cells (IgG), macrophages (IgG), eosinophils (IgE) or other cells (IgG)