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IMMUNITY. HMIM BLOCK 224. Dr. Shaikh Mujeeb Ahmed Assistant Professor AlMaarefa College. Objectives. General overview of the immune system Different components of innate & acquired immunity. Phases of immune response. What is Immunity ?.

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immunity

IMMUNITY

HMIM BLOCK 224

Dr. ShaikhMujeeb Ahmed

Assistant Professor

AlMaarefa College

objectives
Objectives
  • General overview of the immune system
  • Different components of innate & acquired immunity.
  • Phases of immune response.
what is immunity
What is Immunity ?

Immunity is the body’s ability to resist or eliminate potentially harmful foreign materials or abnormal cells.

what are the types of immunity
What are the types of immunity
  • Innate (natural) immunity
  • Acquired (adaptive) immunity
what is meant by innate immunity
What is meant by innate immunity ?
  • Nonspecific responses
  • Inherent (innate or built-in) defense mechanisms
  • Nonselective defend against foreign or abnormal material of any type, even on initial exposure to it.
what is it includes
What is it includes?
  • Barriers
    • Physical
    • Chemical
  • Defensive cells
    • WBCs
    • Macrophages
    • Natural killer cells (NK)
  • Chemical defenses
    • Complement system
barriers
Barriers
  • Integumentary system
  • Mucus membrane & lysozyme
cells
Cells
  • Langerhans cells
  • Phagocytes
  • Natural killer cells
  • Basophils and mast cells
chemicals
Chemicals
  • Interferon: (are named after their ability to "interfere" with viral replication)
  • Complement system: (helps or “complements” the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear pathogens from an organism)
  • Inflammation: (biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli)
interferon
Interferon
  • α, β, and γ interferon
  • By infected cells
  • Function by blocking viral reproduction
innate immunity
Innate Immunity

Mechanism of Action of Interferon in Preventing Viral Replication

slide13

Complement System

Series of ~ 20 proteins

Activated by microorganisms

Will coat the microorganisms

Adherence reactions

phagocytic cells have receptors for C3

Biological active fragments

produce reactive oxygen intermediates

Membrane lesions

Activate mast cells

acquired adaptive immunity
Acquired (adaptive) immunity
  • specific immune responses selectively targeted against a particular foreign material to which the body has already been exposed.
  • The foreign material may be an antigen or a hapten (is a small molecule that can produce an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein)
immune response antigen
Immune Response Antigen
  • Antigen – “any substance when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody”
    • Bacteria, fungus, parasite
    • Viral particles
    • Other foreign material
  • Pathogen – an Antigen which causes disease
immune response antibodies
Immune Response Antibodies
  • Antibody– “a Y-shaped protein, found on the surface of B-Cells or free in the blood, that neutralize antigen by binding specifically to it”
  • Also known as an Immunoglobulin

Antigen

hapten
Hapten
  • Not antigenic by itself
  • When combines with protein it become an antigen
adaptive immunity
Adaptive immunity
  • Two types
    • Active immunity – direct encounter with the antigen.
    • Passive immunity – without encounter with the antigen
      • Antibodies transferred from mother to the fetus.
      • Immunization by injecting antibodies
active immunity
Active immunity
  • Cell mediated immunity (T cell immunity)
  • Antibody mediated (humoral/ B cell) immunity
origins of b and t lymphocytes
Origins of B and T lymphocytes

After early childhood most new lymphocytes are derived from peripheral lymphocyte colonies rather than from bone marrow

slide23

Interactions between T- and B-Cells

T- memory Cell

T-supressor

Pre-T

Cell

T8-ctotoxic

T-Cell

T4-helper

Bone Marrow

Pre-B

Cell

Plasma Cell

B-Cell

B- memory Cell

IgG

IgA

IgD

IgM

IgE

phases of immune mechanism
Phases of immune mechanism
  • Initial phase
    • Entry of antigen and its contact with the specific receptor on lymphocytic membrane.
  • Central phase
    • Cooperation among different subset of lymphocytes that proliferate and differentiate to form T & B lymphocyte + memory cells
  • Effector phase
    • Inactivation of antigen by sensitized T & B lymphocytes
references
References
  • Human physiology by Lauralee Sherwood, seventh edition
  • Text book physiology by Guyton &Hall,11th edition
  • Text book of physiology by Linda .s contanzo, third edition