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Indian Nationalism & Decolonization PowerPoint Presentation
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Indian Nationalism & Decolonization

Indian Nationalism & Decolonization

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Indian Nationalism & Decolonization

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  1. Indian Nationalism & Decolonization

  2. 1858 British take political control of India

  3. Causes of Indian nationalism: • discontent with British rule • India unified • leadership • common language • new print culture • nationalist orgs.

  4. Political Nationalism • desire for  political freedoms: • suffrage •  Indians in government • independence

  5. Cultural Nationalism • development of “Indian” cultural identity • rewrite histories • Hinduism • math/sciences • art

  6. 1885 1st – Indian elite only 1920s – mass movement (Gandhi) moderate constitutional methods Alan Octavian Hume, founder of Indian National Indian National Union, which became INC Indian National Congress

  7. Swadeshi Movement • early 1900s • Swadeshi = “one’s own country,” self-sufficiency • boycott British goods • Indians produce own goods • nationalist education • nationalism = mass movement

  8. 1906 seek Muslim political rights Muhammad Ali Jinnah – leader of Muslim League, founder of Pakistan, and first Governor-General of Pakistan Muslim League

  9. leader of INC, 1920s-1930s nonviolence (satyagraha) Gandhi (1869-1948)

  10. Chronology - early life & training for his future role: • 1869 – born in Gujarat • 1888-1891 – study law in Britain • 1893-1899, 1902-1915 – fight racism in SA

  11. Chronology – protest against British rule builds & Gandhi becomes Indian leader: • 1915 – Satyagraha Ashram • 1919 – Amritsar Massacre • 1922-1924 – imprisonment • 1924 – fast: Hindu-Muslim unity • 1930 – Salt March • January 1948 – fast: Hindu-Muslim unity • 1948 – assassinated

  12. Gandhi and followers on the Salt March

  13. On the beach at Dandi, the end of the Salt March

  14. Issues in the Indian nationalist movement • method – nonviolence vs. violence • religion – Hinduism vs. Islam • women’s rights • Q of westernization/modernization

  15. Independence • August 14, 1947 – Pakistan (Muslim majority) • August 15, 1947 – India (Hindu majority)

  16. India before (left) and after (right) 1947

  17. Post-Independence Violence • Hindu vs. Muslim • 1 million deaths • 12 million relocated • Gandhi’s fast  success

  18. 1st PM of India (1947-1964) goal: modernize India, via socialist economics & democratic politics Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)