France Finds a Foothold in Canada • Similar to the English and Dutch, France was late to colonization • 1500s: religious wars (Protestant vs. Catholic) and foreign wars • In 1534, the French explorer Jacques Cartier came to Canada and claimed it for France. • 16th century French efforts to establish settlements in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia failed • In 1598, the Edict of Nantes was issued by the crown of France • Limited religious freedom to Huguenots (Fr Protestants) • Stopped internal religious wars
France Finds a Foothold in Canada • In 1608, France established Quebec • Leading figure was Samuel de Champlain • Soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership earned him the title "Father of New France“ • Entered into friendly relations with the neighboring Huron Indians and helped them defeat the Iroquois • Iroquois would hamper French expansion into Ohio River Valley later • The government of New France (Canada) was under direct control of the king • The people did not elect any representative assemblies
France Finds a Foothold in Canada • No massive French immigration to North America • Peasants were too poor • Huguenots weren’t allowed into “New France • Went to other areas • No popular assemblies • No trial by jury • Young men recruited into army • West Indies favored
“Daughters of the King”Filles du roi • Only 12% of the emigrants to Canada in the 17th century were female • Most of these were “daughters of the king” • From an orphanage in Paris • Given a dowry to come to North America • Expected to marry quickly after arriving http://www.fillesduroi.org/src/Filles_list.htm
New France Sets Out • New France’s (Canada) one valuable resource was the beaver • Beaver hunters were known as the coureurs de bois • Monopolies were granted (trusts) by royal charter • French voyageursalso recruited Indians to hunt for beaver as well • Indians were decimated by diseases • The beaver population was also heavily decimated • French Catholic missionaries (Jesuits) zealously tried to convert Indians • Met Native Americans in their homes, lived with them, learned their language • Louisiana (New Orleans most important city) was founded, in 1682, to thwart Spanish expansion into the area near the Gulf of Mexico Loss of “safety net”, reliance on one resource?
The Clash of Empires • The Battle for Supremacy in North America England vs. France • King William's War (1689-1697) • French raided English outposts and settlements on the frontier • Resulted in status quo • Queen Anne's War (1702-1713) • Treaty ofUtrecht (1713) • Britain received French-populated Acadia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay • The British also won limited trading rights in Spanish America • King George’s War (1744-1748) • Colonists captured Fort Louisbourg from French • Treaty handed Louisbourg back to France enraging the victorious New Englanders
French and Indian War or Seven Years’ War • England and France fighting for colonial supremacy around the world 1756-1763 Seven Years’ War (though some of the fighting started earlier in the colonies)
Washington Inaugurates War with France • 1753 George Washington delivers message to French in Ohio Country • In 1754, Washington sent back to Ohio Country with larger force • Virginia militia engage a small French party, then retreat and build Ft. Necessity • Virginians were forced to surrender on July 4, 1754 • 1755 British and French both send forces to North America, increased hostilities • British also uprooted the French Acadians and scattered them • French are fortifying Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh, PA region today) • English assign General Edward Braddock to take Ft. Duquesne Washington built Fort Necessity … recreated to the right
Global War and Colonial Disunity • The French and Indian War/Seven Years' War started in1754 in the colonies • It was fought in America, Europe, the West Indies, the Philippines, Africa, and on the ocean • Major fighting in Europe starts in 1756 • In Europe, the principal adversaries were Britain and Prussia on one side and France, Spain, Austria, and Russia on the other • The French used so many troops in Europe that they were unable to put enough forces into America • The Albany Congress met in 1754 • Only 7 of 13 colony delegates showed up • It attempted to unite all of the colonies but the plan was hated by individual colonists and the London regime
Benjamin Franklin created America’s first political cartoon. What is the message? Is it easy to understand? Does this make it effective? Notice the nice use of labels
Braddock's Blundering and Its Aftermath • General Braddock set out in 1755 with 2,000 men to capture Fort Duquesne • His force was slaughtered by the much smaller French and Indian army Braddock's Blunder • Due to this loss of troops, the whole frontier from PA to NC was left open to attack • George Washington, with only 300 men, tried to defend the area • Washington successfully organizes a retreat as everything is falling apart. This gains him fame in the colonies and makes him into a war hero. (Later, during the American Revolution he will be chosen as a leader because of this “experience”.) • In 1756, the British launched full-scale invasion of Canada
Pitt's Palms of Victory • In 1757, William Pitt became the foremost leader in the London government • He was known as the "Great Commoner“ • He ordered attack that led to capture of Louisbourgin 1758 • Ft. Duquesne also captured in 1758 by British • To lead the attack in the Battle of Quebec in 1759, Pitt chose James Wolfe • Opposing armies faced each other on the Plains of Abraham, British under Wolfe and French under Marquis de Montcalm • British won • Montreal fell in 1760 to General Jeffrey Amherst • The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the conflict
Treaty of Paris • 1763 • Eliminated France as a colonial power in North America • Canada to England • Land east of Mississippi to England • Except New Orleans • (Land west of Mississippi to Spain, who had been a French ally) • West Indies were redistributed • Many had been captured by opposing sides during the war
Notice the changes. France is no longer an imperial power in North America. England gains a lot of territory.
Colonies Gained self-confidence and military experience (a little) Saw the need for colonial unity to meet common problems, now had experience (Albany Congress) Had the danger of attack by French and certain Indian tribes removed from the frontier (less dependent on English support) Colonial military leaders angry few Americans were promoted in British army* *George Washington was hoping to be named an officer in the British army, he was disappointed when it did not happen Britain Had neglected the colonies, who had developed self-government and had been evading Br. Mercantilist restrictions Had not helped sufficiently with soldiers or supplies in the war against France Colonies had gained much from the victory (mostly land and safety) Upset colonists had traded with Spanish and West Indies Should pay at least part of the cost of the war Debt had doubled Effects of the F & I War
Explain the Paradox • Crocodile Dilemma: If a crocodile steals a child and promises its return if the father can correctly guess what the crocodile will do, how should the crocodile respond in the case that the father guesses that the child will not be returned? • Intentionally blank page: Many documents contain pages on which the text "This page is intentionally left blank" is printed, thereby making the page not blank.
Key Paradox (?) • According to Bailey and Kennedy: Britain’s victory over France – which the British colonists officially supported – actually created new sources of tension between Americans and the mother country (the Americans and British were on the same side and won, yet they ended up worsening their relationship)
Britain’s New Policy • Place the colonies under strict British political and economic control • End of salutary neglect! • Compel the colonies to respect and obey English laws • Make the colonies bear their part of the cost of maintaining the British Empire (need to pay off debt)
Restless Colonists • Intercolonial disunity had been caused by: • enormous distances • geographical barriers • conflicting religions, from Catholics to Quakers • varied nationalities, from German to Irish • differing types of colonial governments • many boundary disputes • resentment of back-country settlers against aristocrats
Pontiac’s Rebellion • 1763: Ohio Valley • Causes: • F & I War • Replacement of French with British • Chief Pontiac • Ottawa Chief • Refused to surrender land – had been allied with France • Led Indian alliance against whites • Lasted for about 18 months • British tried germ warfare • Militarily a stalemate, but led to political developments • Br dealt with Indians more like French and
For the British, they saw Pontiac’s Rebellion as evidence that if colonists were allowed into the newly won western territories there would be conflict with Native Americans. This conflict would be expensive and the British debt had already doubled due to the French and Indian War.
Proclamation of 1763 • Partly in response to Pontiac’s Rebellion • Prohibited colonials from moving west of the Appalachians • Would settle land disputes with Indians fairly to prevent more uprisings • Organize eventual settlement and defense • Colonists were infuriated • Believed it was permanent- British only meant for it to be temporary • Colonists generally ignored