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Non-Communicable Diseases. December 1, 2008. Non-communicable . Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment. Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Asthma, Allergies, Arthritis. Cardiovascular Disease . Disease the affects the hear or blood vessels.

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non communicable
Non-communicable
  • Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment.
  • Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Asthma, Allergies, Arthritis
cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular Disease
  • Disease the affects the hear or blood vessels.
  • Approximately 61 million Americans have some form of this disease.
  • Types of CVD –
    • Hypertension
    • Arthrosclerosis
    • Angina Pectoris
    • Arrhythmias
    • Heart Attack
    • Congestive Heart Failure
    • Stroke
risk factors for cvd
Risk Factors for CVD
  • Tobacco Use
  • High Blood Pressure
  • High Cholesterol
  • Physical Inactivity
  • Excess Weight
  • Stress
  • Drug and Alcohol Use
risk factors cannot be controlled
Risk Factors – Cannot Be Controlled
  • Heredity
  • Gender – Men are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease as well as greater risk of having a heart attack.
  • Age – 80% of people who die of cardiovascular diseases are 65 or older.
cancer
Cancer
  • Uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells
  • Tumor – abnormal mass of tissue that has not natural role in the body.
    • Benign – noncancerous
    • Malignant – cancerous
      • Metastasis – spread of cancer from the point it originated to other parts of the body.
types of cancer
Types of Cancer
  • Lymphomas – cancers of the immune system
  • Leukemias – cancers of the blood-forming tissues
  • Carcinomas – cancers of the gland and body linings, including the skin and the linings of the digestive tract and lungs
  • Sarcomas – cancers of the connective tissues, including bones, ligaments, and muscle
risk factors
Risk Factors
  • Tobacco Use – Lung, bladder, pancreas, and kidney cancer; 1 in 5 deaths are attributed to smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke
  • Sexually Transmitted Disease – cervical and liver cancers.
  • Dietary Factors – Colon, Breast, and Prostate; 30% of all cancers linked to poor food choices, specifically ones high in fat and low in fiber.
  • Radiation – Skin Cancer; 80% of skin cancers are preventable
caution about cancer
CAUTION about Cancer
  • Change in bowel habits
  • A sore that does not heal
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • Thickening or a lump
  • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
  • Obvious change in a wart or mole
  • Nagging cough or hoarseness
    • Other symptoms can include fatigue and unexplained weight loss.
reduce your risk
Reduce Your Risk
  • Practice abstinence from sexual activity
  • Be physically active
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Eat nutritious foods – low in saturated fat and high in fiber
  • Protect your skin from ultraviolet radiation
  • Avoid tobacco and alcohol
  • Recognize the warning signs of cancer
treating cancer
Treating Cancer
  • Treatment depends on several factors such as: type of cancer, location, and whether the tumor has spread.
    • Surgery
    • Radiation Therapy – radioactive substances used to kill cancer cells and shrinks the cancerous mass.
    • Chemotherapy – chemicals to kill cancer cells.
    • Immunotherapy – activates person’s immune system to recognize specific cancers and destroy them.
    • Hormone Therapy – medicines that interfere with production of hormones; kill or slow the growth of cells.
allergies
Allergies
  • Specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance.
  • Pollen, foods, dust, mold, chemicals, insect venom, and medicines – common allergens
  • Histamines – chemicals that can stimulate mucus and fluid production.
  • Typical Symptoms – sneezing, itchy eyes, runny nose
  • Severe Symptoms – hives, itching or swelling of a stung area or the mouth, difficulty breathing, raspy voice, swelling of the tongue, dizziness.
asthma
Asthma
  • An inflammatory condition in which the small airways in the lungs become narrowed.
    • Affects more than 17 million people in the U.S.
    • 5,000 Americans die of the disease
  • Certain substances, called triggers, irritate the bronchial tubes resulting in the tightening of the walls and production of mucus.
managing asthma
Managing Asthma
  • Monitor the Condition
  • Manage the Environment
  • Manage stress
  • Take medication
diabetes
Diabetes
  • Chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert food into energy.
    • Each year, approximately 1 million new cases are diagnosed.
  • The pancreas produced too little or no insulin
    • A hormone that helps glucose enter the body’s cells.
  • If glucose is not converted into energy, it builds up in the bloodstream, thus a blood test is needed to diagnose diabetes.
types of diabetes
Types of Diabetes
  • Type 1 (Autoimmune Disease)
    • Accounts for 5-10% of all diabetics.
    • Appears suddenly and progresses quickly; can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart.
    • People can treat diabetes with daily doses of insulin via injections or pump.
types of diabetes17
Types of Diabetes
  • Type 2
    • Accounts for 90-95% of all cases; appears most often after the age of 40.
    • Body is unable to make enough insulin or use the insulin properly.
    • Treatment includes weight management and regular physical activity.
  • Gestational Diabetes – during pregnancy
symptoms
Symptoms
  • Frequent urination
  • Excessive thirst
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Extreme hunger
  • Sudden vision changes
  • Tingling in hands or feet
  • Frequent fatigue
  • Very dry skin
  • Sore that are slow to heal
  • More infections that usual
arthritis
Arthritis

Arthritis epidemic may result from the number of people participating in adventure sports

  • 100 + diseases that cause pain and loss of movement in joints.
  • 8.4 million ages 18-44 have arthritis.
  • Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis most common types
osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis
  • Disease of the joints in which cartilage breaks down resulting in the bones rubbing against each other.
  • Accounts for half of all arthritis cases affecting about 20 million nationwide.
  • Most common in women and in people over the age of 45.
reduce the risk of osteoarthritis
Reduce the Risk of Osteoarthritis
  • Controlling weight
  • Preventing sports injuries/allowing injuries to heal completely before playing again
  • Protecting against Lyme Disease
rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Characterized by the destruction of the joints due to inflammation.
  • Affects 2.5 million people nationwide
  • Most common in women;
  • Symptoms usually appear between the ages of 20 and 50
  • Can affect young children (juvenile rheumatoid arthritis)
  • Caused by an autoimmune disease – no cure!
symptoms and treatment
Symptoms and Treatment
  • Symptoms
  • Joint pain
  • Inflammation
  • Swelling
  • Stiffness
  • Joint deformity
  • Loss of normal function
  • Medications
    • Relieve pain, reduce inflammation and swelling, and stiffness
  • Exercise
  • Rest
  • Joint Protection
  • Physical and Occupational therapy