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Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases. Journal #1. What could you do to help prevent the spread of communicable (spreadable) diseases?. Chapter 18- Communicable Diseases (pages 478-491) Define the following. Disease- Communicable disease- Pathogens- Infection-

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Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases


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    1. Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases

    2. Journal #1 What could you do to help prevent the spread of communicable (spreadable) diseases?

    3. Chapter 18- Communicable Diseases (pages 478-491) Define the following. Disease- Communicable disease- Pathogens- Infection- 4 Types of Pathogens. Define the following and give an example of what disease each may cause. 1.virus- 2.Bacteria 3.fungi- 4.protozoa- a condition that interferes with the proper functioning of the body. disease that can be passed to a person from another person, animal, or object. disease-causing organisms that are so small they can only be seen through a microscope. a condition that occurs when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and cause harm. the smallest pathogens. Ex.cold,flu tiny one-celled organisms. Ex. strep, pneumonia organisms that are more complex than bacteria, but cannot make their own food. Ex. ringworm, athlete’s foot One-celled organisms that are more complex than bacteria. Ex.malaria

    4. How do Pathogens Spread? * * * * Direct contact with others. (Ex.shaking hands, kissing) Indirect contact with others.(Ex.sharing glasses, utensils,needles) Contactwith contaminated food. (Ex. contaminated, undercooked, or improperly stored food) Contact with animals or insects. (Ex. Lyme disease, West Nile virus. vector- an organism, such as an insect, that transmits pathogens.

    5. Define the following. hygiene- immune system- Immunity- cleanliness. combination of body defenses made up of the cells, tissues, and organs that fight off pathogens and disease. your body’s ability to resist the germs that cause a particular disease.

    6. The Body’s 5 Major Barriers from Pathogens. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Tears (protect eyes from dust and carry foreign material from eyes) Mucous Membranes (soft skin that lines body openings and coated with mucous, which traps pathogens) Saliva (washes germs away from teeth and contains pathogen-killing chemicals) Skin (provides a tough, outer protective surface. Pathogens can get in through a cut) Stomach acid (gastric juice that kills many pathogens that make it past your saliva and mucous membranes in your mouth)

    7. Define the following. inflammation- lymphatic system- lymphocytes- antigen- antibodies- vaccine- the body’s response to injury or disease, resulting in a condition of swelling, pain, heat and redness. a secondary circulatory system that helps the body fight pathogens and maintains its fluid balance. the white blood cells in the lymphatic system. any substance released by invading pathogens. proteins that attach to antigens, keeping them from harming the body. a preparation of dead or weakened pathogens that causes the immune system to produce antibodies.

    8. Journal #2 What is the proper way to wash your hands? Be specific. Do you think a hand dryer or paper towel are more effective at removing pathogens? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ELm7VjrFg4&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1 (Bill Nye) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eFUzbF_JwQA&feature=fvw&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1 (Jingle Bells tune)

    9. Journal #2 Do you know anyone with a non-communicable disease (diabetes, cancer, heart disease)? If so, what disease and how do they manage the disease (ex. diet, exercise)? Can you think of any celebrities who have had one?

    10. Non-Communicable Disease- Diseases that cannot be spread from person to person. • EX: You cannot catch Diabetes from someone who has this disease.

    11. Congenital Disorders- all disorders that are present when the baby is born. • EX: Cystic Fibrosis, spinda bifida, down syndrome Cystic fibrosis

    12. Heredity- the passing of traits from parents to their children. • EX: Muscular Dystrophy

    13. Cancer- a disease characterized by the rapid and uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. • It can affect people of all ages. • 2nd leading cause of death in the U.S.

    14. Tumor- a mass of abnormal cells. • Tumors can be: • Benign: Not Cancerous • Malignant: Cancerous

    15. Biopsy- • The removal of a sample of tissue from a person for examination.

    16. Warning Signs of Cancer • Change in bowel or bladder habits. • A sore that does not heal. • Unusual bleeding or discharge. • Thickening or lumps in the body. • Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing. • Obvious change in mole or wart. • Nagging cough or hoarseness.

    17. Treating Cancer • Surgery • Radiation Therapy • Chemotherapy

    18. Heart Disease- any condition that weakens the heart and blood vessels and makes them less functional.

    19. 2 types of Heart Disease: • Arteriosclerosis: A group of disorders in which arteries harden and become more rigid. • Atherosclerosis: occurs when fatty substances in the blood build up on the walls of the arteries.

    20. Other Cardiovascular Problems: • Hypertension: pressure of the blood on the walls of the blood vessels stays at a level that is higher than normal. • Stroke: condition that occurs when an artery of the brain breaks or becomes blocked. • Heart Attack: blood flow to the heart is reduced or blocked.

    21. Treating Heart Disease: • Angioplasty: an instrutment is inserted into a blocked artery to clear blockage. • Medications • Pacemakers • Bypass/Heart Valve Surgery • Heart Transplants

    22. Diabetes- a disease that prevents the body from converting food into energy. • Their bodies do not produce/properly use Insulin. Insulin: a protein made in the pancreas that regulates the level of glucose in the blood.

    23. Two Types of Diabetes: • Type 1: the immune system attacks insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. (Often starts in childhood) • Type 2: the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. (90-95% of diabetes have type 2, usually begins in adulthood)

    24. Managing Diabetes: • Healthy Eating • Weight Management • Insulin Injections • Medical Care

    25. Arthritis- is a disease of the joints marked by painful swelling and stiffness. • More then 40 million people in the United States have arthritis.

    26. Two Types of Arthritis: • Osteoarthritis: disease that results from a breakdown in cartilage in the joints. “wear and tear” arthritis • Rheumatoid arthritis: a chronic disease characterized by pain, inflammation, swelling, and stiffness in the joints.

    27. Lifestyle Choices and Diseases • Heredity, age, gender, and ethnic group are factors which people have no control. • To decrease your risk of disease: Eat healthful foods Stay Physically Active Maintain healthy weight Get enough sleep Manage stress Avoid tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs

    28. Allergies- an extreme sensitivity to a substance. • Allergens: substances that cause allergic responses.

    29. Common Allergens • Pollen • Food • Insect bites or stings • Plants • Medicine

    30. How to Manage Allergies: • Avoid the allergen. • Take medication. • Antihistamines. • Get Injections.

    31. Asthma- a condition in which the small airways in the lungs narrow, making breathing difficult. • 20 million people in the US have asthma. • About 1/3 of those people are under 18.

    32. Managing Asthma: • Manage the environment. • Manage Stress • Take Medication

    33. Journal #4: • Who do you think is most susceptible to obtaining a communicable disease? Why? • How can they reduce their chances of catching something?

    34. Notebook Pages: 1. Health Rules and Regulations 2. Journal #1-#4 3. Outline-Communicable Diseases 4. Notes/Vocab