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NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES( NCDs). By NSABIMANA Olivier Philemon, B.Pharm . ASEPA / UNR From 19/4-3/5 /2014. Introduction.

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Non communicable diseases ncds

NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES( NCDs)

By NSABIMANA Olivier Philemon, B.Pharm.

ASEPA / UNR From 19/4-3/5 /2014


Introduction

Introduction

1 Abakorinto 6:19 ‘’ Mbesentimuziyukoimibiriyanyuariinsengeroz’umwukaweraurimurimwe,…..

I Abakorinto10: 31 ‘’ namweiyomuryacyangwamunywa cg mukoraikindikintucyosemujyemukorerabyoseguhimbazaImana.


Non communicable diseases ncds1

NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES ( NCDs)

Non communicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, are not passed from person to person. They are of long duration and generally slow progression.

The four main types of non communicable diseases are:

Cardiovascular diseases (like heart attacks and stroke)

Cancers

Chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructed pulmonary disease and asthma)

Diabetes


Ncds worldwide

NCDs Worldwide

NCDs kill more than 36 million people each year

Nearly 80% of NCD deaths ( 29 million ) occur in low- and middle-income countries

More than 9 million of all deaths attributed to NCDs occur before the age of 60.

Cardiovascular diseases account 17.3 million people annually.

Cancers (7.6 million people) annually

Respiratory diseases (4.2 million people) annually

Diabetes (1.3 million) annually.


A global problem
A global problem

  • In 2004 there were 59 million deaths world-wide

  • Non-communicable diseases accounted for 60% of these deaths and injuries and violence 10%.

  • By 2020 it is estimated that non-communicable disease will account for 73% of all deaths


The growing threat of ncds to development
The growing threat of NCDs to Development

“World’s health challenges are more than medical. Behavior and lifestyle also contribute to ill-health. To become a healthy nation, Countries need to make decisions about what they eat, the way they use alcohol and tobacco and state of Physical activities” .

World Health Development Plan 2030


The epidemiologic transition

The epidemiologic transition

Change in the balance of disease in a population

from

communicable diseases

to

non-communicable disease


2012 lancet report on global burden of disease
2012 Lancet report on Global Burden of Disease

  • In 1990, 47% of deaths worldwide were from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, 43% from non-communicable diseases, and 10% from injuries.

    By 2010, this had shifted to 35%, 54%, and 11%, respectively.

  • Thus there is a 11% relative increase in burden from NCDs within 20 years. Projections are that there will be an even steeper rise over the next 20 years with the greatest increase being in Africa.


2012 lancet report on global burden of disease cont d

2012 Lancet report on Global Burden of Disease (Cont’d)

Thus there is a 11% relative increase in burden from NCDs within 20 years. Projections are that there will be an even steeper rise over the next 20 years with the greatest increase being in Africa.

By 2030 it is estimated that NCDs will contribute 75% of global deaths. 13% of deaths from NCDs in developed countries occur in people under 60 – in Africa it is 29%



Ncds risk factors 1

NCDs Risk Factors (1)

NCDs share four risk factors:

Tobacco use

Physical inactivity

Use of alcohol

Unhealthy diets


Ncds risk factors cont d 2

NCDs Risk Factors (Cont’d) 2

Modifiable behavioral risk factors

Tobacco accounts for almost 6 million deaths every year (including over 600 000 deaths from exposure to second-hand smoke).

About 3.2 million deaths annually can be attributed to insufficient physical activity.

1.7 million deaths are attributable to low fruit and vegetable consumption.

2.3million annual deaths from harmful drinking.


Ncds risk factors cont d 3

NCDs Risk Factors (Cont’d) 3

Metabolic/physiological risk factors

These behaviors lead to four key metabolic/physiological changes that increase the risk of NCDs:

Raised blood pressure,

Overweight/Obesity,

Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels)

Hyperlipidemia (high levels of fat in the blood).


In terms of attributable deaths ncds

In terms of attributable deaths ,NCDs

Blood pressure (to which 16.5% of global deaths are attributed

Tobacco use (9%)

Raised blood glucose (6%)

Physical inactivity (6%)

Overweight and obesity (5%)


Prevention and control of ncds

Prevention and control of NCDs

An important way to reduce NCDs is to focus on lessening the risk factors associated with these diseases. Low-cost solutions exist to reduce the common modifiable risk factors:

(mainly tobacco use, unhealthy diet , physical inactivity, and the harmful use of alcohol) and map the epidemic of NCDs and their risk factors (1).

Interventions that can be delivered through a primary health-care approach to strengthen early detection and timely treatment


Summary
Summary

  • Non-communicable diseases are now the most common cause of death worldwide

  • Increasing rates in low and middle income countries because of change in lifestyles (urbanisation)

  • Key risk factors have very large effects

  • Interventions are effective and can reduce burden


Week program

WEEK PROGRAM

Along this week we will go though the main four NCDs such as:

Cardiovascular diseases (like heart attacks and stroke)

Cancers

Chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructed pulmonary disease and asthma)

Diabetes( Type I and Type II)


Week program 2

WEEK PROGRAM ( 2)

We will see:

Physiopathology of disease

Signs and Symptoms of disease

Risk factors

Prevention measures


You are all welcome and don t forget your neighbors god bless you all thanks
YOU ARE ALL WELCOMEandDon’t forget your neighborsGOD BLESS YOU ALLTHANKS!!!!!!!