NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Lesson # 1
Non Communicable Diseases Non Communicable Disease: WHAT IS IT? • A disease that is not transmitted by another person, or a vector, or from the environment. • Certain habits and behaviors can either increase or decrease the risk of these diseases.
Non communicable Diseases • Cancer: A group of diseases characterized by an uncontrollable growth and spread of abnormal cells. • Using your text on page 530 define the following terms: • Tumor • Benign • Malignant
Vocabulary • Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue that has no natural role in the body. • Benign – noncancerous; if you’re benign your fine! • Malignant – cancerous
Types of Cancer • Lymphomas: cancers of the immune system. • Leukemias: cancers of the blood-forming organs. • Carinomas: cancers of the glands and body linings, including the skin and linings of the digestive tract and lungs. • Sarcomas: Cancers of the connective tissue, including bones, ligaments, and muscles.
Risk Factors • There is no known cause of cancer. • Genetics – family history • Environment – food, water, soil, air • Lifestyles choices – sexual activity, drinking, smoking, drugs • What is a Carcinogen??? • Carcinogen: A cancer causing substance. • Tobacco use • Alcohol use • Illegal drug use • Sexually transmitted disease • Radiation – ultraviolet rays from the sun • Dietary factors
How can you reduce your risk of Cancer?? • Practice abstinence • Be physically active • Maintain healthy weight • Eat nutritious foods • Protect your skin from the sun • Avoid tobacco, drugs, and alcohol • Recognize warning signs of cancer • What type of cancer is most common in the US? • SKIN CANCER
THREE TYPES OF SKIN CANCER • Basal Cell Carcinoma: • Most common • Usually appears on face & ears • easiest to detect & treat • Does not usually spread. • Squamous Cell Carcinoma: • Second most common • Appears on sun-exposed parts of body • Likely to spread to areas beneath skin. • Melanoma: • Least common but most lethal • UV radiation from sun or tanning beds can increase risk • Important to diagnose in early stages • Approximately 70% begin near in or near a mole • Highest risk fair skin, freckles, light blue/green eyes.
Warning Signs of Skin Cancer • Asymmetrical: An imaginary line drawn through the center of the mole that does not produce matching halves. • Border: Noncancerous moles have smooth edges, suspect moles often have irregular edges. • Color: Be cautious of moles that are intensely black. • Diameter: anything over 10 mm should be removed and checked. • Evolving: if a mole is growing or changing in size, shape or elevation.
Methods to Prevent Skin Cancer: • Sun block- SPF 30 or greater • Avoid sun from 10 AM until around 4 PM • Wear light clothing • Wear a hat with a wide brim • Wear sunglasses with UV Protection • Do not go indoor tanning- (it’s also bad for night vision)
Warning Signs of Cancer: • Change in bowel and bladder habits • Asore that does not heal • Unusual bleeding or discharge • Thickening or lump • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing • Obvious change in wart or mole • Nagging cough or hoarseness
Detecting and Treating Cancer: • Self examination • Biopsy: the removal of a small piece of tissue for examination • Treatment: • Surgery: removes some or all of cancerous tissue mass. • Radiation therapy: aims rays from radioactive substances at cancerous cells. Radiation kills or shrinks the mass. • Chemotherapy: uses chemicals to destroy cancer cells • Immunotherapy: activates a person’s immune system to recognize specific cancers and destroy them. • Hormone therapy: involves using medicines that interfere with the production of hormones. Treatment kills cancer cells or slows the growth.
NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Lesson # 2
Define the following terms Using your text starting on page 514: • Cardiovascular Disease • Angina Pectoris • Atherosclerosis • Arrhythmias • Heart Attack • Hypertension • Stroke
WARNING SIGNS OF A HEART ATTACK & STROKE: HEART ATTACK STROKE • Heart stops because heart is overworked: • Left arm goes numb • Sweating • Skin is pale or clammy • Chest pain • Unconscious • Shortness of breath • Breathing difficulty • Blood supply to the brain is cut off: • Confusion • Headache • Dizziness • Sweating • Pale and/or redness • Balance is thrown off
Vocabulary • Hypertension (high blood pressure) • can be lowered with medication, weight management, physical activity, and proper nutrition • most common among people over the age of 35 • normal range: 120/80 • often called the “silent killer”- having no symptoms in early stages
Vocabulary • Atherosclerosis • A build up of fatty materials in your arteries • narrows the arteries, making the heart work harder • Cholesterol: • HDL: high density lipoprotein (good) • LDL: low density lipoprotein (bad) causes atherosclerosis
Vocabulary Cardiovascular Disease: • A disease that affects the heart, blood, or blood vessels. • Angina- chest pains caused by lack of oxygen • Arrhythmias- irregular heartbeat • Heart attack- caused by blockages of arteries, damage to the heart muscle • Stroke- arterial blockage that disrupts the flow of blood in the brain • Congestive Heart Failure- heart no longer pumps efficiently
RISK FACTORS FOR CVD’S CONTROLLABLE UNCONTROLLABLE • Tobacco Use • High Blood Pressure- have it checked periodically • High Cholesterol- eat less high-fat foods • Physical Inactivity • Excess Weight • Stress • Drug and Alcohol Use • Heredity • Gender • Age • The health behaviors that you practice now are affecting your cardiovascular system!