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Positive Physical Education

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  1. Positive Physical Education Marty BarrettThe Academy for Academics and Arts NASPE Sets the Standard

  2. Disclaimer All physical education is not good physical education

  3. Goal of Physical Education • To develop physically educated individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and confidence to enjoy a lifetime of healthful physical activity • To guide youngsters in the process of becoming physically active for a lifetime

  4. Popular Terms to Describe “Good” Physical Education • Quality physical education • Positive physical education

  5. Positive Physical Education • Another term for quality physical education • Focus is on creating a positive environment in which all students can be successful • Recognition that enjoyment of physical activity is a major influence on whether a person chooses to be active

  6. Positive (Quality) Physical Education • Opportunity to learn • Qualified teachers • Adequate time • Meaningful content • National/state standards for physical education • Appropriate instruction • Formative and summative assessment

  7. Examples of Positive (Quality) Physical Education • All children being active • Stations • Small group games • Technology (pedometers, heart rate monitors) • Choices • Variety of activities • Various practice levels • Personal goals • Cooperative Activities

  8. Definition of a Physically Educated Person • HAS learned skills necessary to perform a variety of physical activities • IS physically fit • DOES participate regularly in physical activity • KNOWS the implications of and the benefits from involvement in physical activities • VALUES physical activity and its contribution to a healthful lifestyle

  9. Purpose of National Standards for Physical Education • To define what a student should know and be able to do as a result of a quality physical education program • Provides credibility to our profession as we are one of many disciplines with standards

  10. National Standards, 2nd Edition • Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities • (Physical skills) • Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities • (Knowledge) • Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity (Physical activity)

  11. National Standards, 2nd Edition • Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health enhancing level of physical fitness(Health-related fitness) • Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings (Behavioral skills) • Standard 6:Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression and/or social interaction (Intrinsic value)

  12. Physical Activity vs. Physical Education • Physical activity = behavior • Physical education = curricular area that teaches about physical activity (helps student attain the knowledge and skills; does not just provide an opportunity for students to be physically active) • Students are physically active in physical education, but students are not (comprehensively) physically educated at recess or through sport participation

  13. Recommended Amounts of Physical Activity and Education • Physical activity • At least 60 minutes, and up to several hours, a day of physical activity • NASPE • Dietary Guidelines for Americans (Federal government) • Physical education • ES: at least 150 minutes/week • MS, HS: at least 225 minutes/week • NASPE • Others that support the NASPE recommendation (e.g., CDC)

  14. The Bad News

  15. Percentage of U.S. High School Students Who Attended Physical Education Classes Daily, 1991 - 2001 Source: CDC, National Youth Risk Behavior Survey

  16. 60 52 51 51 51 50 50 40 40 32 Percent of schools 26 30 25 20 13 10 6 10 5 0 K 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th Percentage of Schools that Require Physical Education, by Grade CDC, School Health Policies and Programs Study, 2000

  17. Daily Physical Education for All Students Daily PE or its equivalent* is provided for entire school year for students in all grades in: • 8% of elementary schools (excluding kindergarten) • 6% of middle/junior high schools • 6% of senior high schools • *Elementary schools: 150 minutes / week; • secondary schools: 225 minutes / week Source: CDC, School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000

  18. Percentage of U.S. Children and Adolescents Who Were Overweight* Ages 12-19 5 4 Ages 6-11 * >95th percentile for BMI by age and sex based on 2000 CDC BMI-for-age growth charts **Data are from 1963-65 for children 6-11 years of age and from 1966-70 for adolescents 12-17 years of age Source: National Center for Health Statistics

  19. Percentage of U.S. Children and Adolescents Who Were Overweight* 16 15 Ages 12-19 5 4 Ages 6-11 * >95th percentile for BMI by age and sex based on 2000 CDC BMI-for-age growth charts **Data are from 1963-65 for children 6-11 years of age and from 1966-70 for adolescents 12-17 years of age Source: National Center for Health Statistics

  20. Prevention of Pediatric Overweight and Obesity • American Academy of Pediatrics - August, 2003 • Probability of childhood obesity persisting into adulthood… • 80% during adolescence • 20% at 4 years of age • Probability that co-morbidities will persist into adulthood • AAP, Policy Statement, Pediatrics 112(2), pp.424-430

  21. Economic Costs • US obesity-attributable medical expenditures in 2003: • $75 billion • Approximately 10% of total US medical expenditures • Percent financed by taxpayers through Medicare and Medicaid • Approximately 50%

  22. Which begs the question… What might the statistics look like if kids in the U.S. had positive, daily physical education for 12 years of school?

  23. The Good News

  24. Recognized Solutions • Physical activity • Physical education

  25. Physical Education’s Role in the Obesity Epidemic • Physical inactivity is part of the problem • Physical activity is part of the solution • Physical education is a critical to increasing physical activity • School physical education programs are the one place that: • All children can participate in regular physical activity • All children can become physically educated for a lifetime of physical activity

  26. National Call to Action: Increase Physical Activity Among Youth • Healthy People 2010 (2000) • Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2000) • Promoting Better Health for Young People Through Physical Activity and Sports: A Report to the President from the Secretary of Health and Human Services and Secretary of Education (2000) • The Surgeon General’s Call to Action To Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity (2001) • Guide to Community Preventive Services (2001)

  27. The Brain/Body Connection • Research has not been conducted to conclusively demonstrate a link between physical activity and improved academic performance • However, such a link might be expected • Research does show that: • Movement stimulates brain functioning • Physical activity increases adolescents’ self-esteem and reduces anxiety and stress…thus, through it’s effects on mental health, may help increase students’ capacity for learning • Increases in time for physical education did not lead to lower test scores

  28. Time in the arts, physical education and school achievement • 547 elementary school principals in Virginia responded to survey • Time allocated for art, music and physical education with a specialist? • Correlated with test scores from their schools • No meaningful relationship found • Results suggest that providing time for AMPE does not negatively impact test scores • Wilkins, J..M., Graham, G., Parker, S., Westfall, S. Fraser, R. & Tembo, M. (2003). • Time in the arts and physical education and school achievement. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 35, 721-734.

  29. The Relationship Between Fitness Levels and Academic Achievement, in California Grade 7

  30. Conclusion • Schools need to educate the whole child • Physical education is the only curricular subject that develops a child’s physical self • Children deserve a comprehensive education • It’s up to taxpayers and decision-makers to make this happen • It’s up to us (and our partners) to influence taxpayers and decision-makers

  31. Resources www.naspeinfo.org www.pecentral.org www.pelinks4u.org www.pe4life.org www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/physicalactivity www.ncppa.org www.actionforhealthykids.org www.fitness.gov