group dynamics project management n.
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GROUP DYNAMICS & PROJECT MANAGEMENT. Sus Lundgren. Why this lecture?. Generations(!) of MDI/ID-students have requested it Even if most of you’ve already worked in groups at the uni… …most of you were in very homogenous groups. The life of a group: six stages. 1) Initial stage

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why this lecture
Why this lecture?
  • Generations(!) of MDI/ID-students have requested it
  • Even if most of you’ve already worked in groups at the uni…

…most of you were in very homogenous groups

the life of a group six stages
The life of a group: six stages
  • 1) Initial stage
    • Insecurity, curiosity, showing off
  • 2) The honeymoon
    • Intense communication and bonding
  • 3) The ”we”-stage
    • Roles and means of communication are being established
    • In groups with more than seven members, sub groups emerge
    • Diversity is seen as a strength
the life of a group six stages1
The life of a group: six stages
  • 4) Conflict stage
    • Irritation, less praise, aggression, envy
    • Diversities are annoying
    • Group pressure builds up
  • 5) Plateau stage
    • Fatigue, resignation
  • 6) The effective stage
    • Unity, everyone working well towards the same target
    • Tranquility, pleasure in one’s work, satisfaction
    • Remains until conditions change…
one aspect of roles
One aspect of roles…
  • Members of a group have task-related roles
    • System architecturer
    • Programmer
    • Database programmer
    • Designers
      • Interaction designers
      • Graphic designers
    • Project leader
    • Technical Project Leader
    • Technical writer
another aspect of roles
Another aspect of roles
  • Members of a group also have roles related to “behaviour”/personality
  • There are various theories on how to describe personalities…
    • Cattell Personality Inventory (16 PF), pairs of attributes (intovert-extrovert, submissive-detemined, exact-creative etc.)
    • Belbin
  • … and numerous tests
belbin s team roles
Belbin’s team roles
  • Meredith Belbin and his colleagues have spent years studying team work in an experimental environment
  • They have defined eight team roles
    • Coordinator (calm, confident, controlled)
    • Plant (creative, unorthodox, non-practical)
    • Implementer (conservative, dutiful)
    • Shaper (extrovert, dynamic, pushing, provoking)
    • Monitor/Evaluator (analytic, strategic, dry)
    • Team worker (sensitive, mild, indecisive, caring)
    • Resource Investigator (curious, communicative)
    • Completer-Finisher (thorough, perfectionist, anxiuos )
team roles teams
Team roles &teams
  • Each of us have a primary and a secondary role, etc.
  • Well-working teams consist of people with many different roles
    • One- or two-role teams are hardly ever functional
  • A person sometimes acts as his or her secondary team role, if it is missing in the group
    • If the team is smaller than eight, some members may act out both their primary and secondary roles
  • The ideal team size seems to be 4-6 people
the industrial project
The Industrial Project
  • Unfortunately there’s a widespread distrust between programmers and designers, leading to numerous conflicts
  • Obvious reasons are
    • Time planning: designers are normally busy during the beginning of the project, programmers in the end
    • The client: There are always misunder-standings leading to redesign  new code
    • User tests: These also cause redesign and might annoy not only the programmers…
the industrial project1
The Industrial Project
  • Inner reasons
    • Lack of understanding of the problems and possibilities within the ”other” discipline
    • View on design: For the designer it lives and changes due to changed requirements, it is never really ”finished”. For the programmer it’s much easier if the design is set from the beginning
  • Programmer: You’re irresolute, changing stuff all the time, whereas I’m the one making the important job!
  • Designer: If the user can’t understand the system it doesn’t matter how genial the code is, you arrogant #@%¤#!!!
what can be done
What can be done?
  • The groups must get an understanding of each others disciplines
  • The entire group should take part in the initial system design meetings
  • Let programmers take part as observers during user tests
  • Let the entire group sit in the same room, if possible
    • More and better communication, ”cross fertilization of ideas”
  • Make early user tests to minimize last-minute redesigns
about you
About you…
  • You have different competences
    • Graphical designers
    • Writers
    • Programmers
  • Different areas of knowledge  different views & different wor(l)ds
  • More…
    • Different levels of ambition
    • Different ways of working
    • Keeping your known roles (programmer etc) or switching and learning from another?
the project leader
The Project leader
  • The project leader serves as an interface and sometimes a filter between
    • the members of the group (or the groups in the group!)
    • The customer
    • The own company
    • Other companies or people involved in the project
  • The project leader needs to
    • Keep everyone reasonably happy == compromise
    • Make sure the project is done on time within budget  lots of administrative work
the project leader1
The Project leader
  • The project leader needs to be
    • Sensitive
    • Rather calm
    • Self confident
    • Tough-stomached
  • The project leader needs to have
    • Good communication skills
    • Good negotiation skills
project management 1a
Project management 1a
  • List all activities you can think of
    • Make time estimate
  • Divide them into groups
    • Time based (e.g. ”preparations”)
    • Skill based (e.g. ”database programming”)
  • Assign people to tasks
  • Make a time line
    • Leave slack!
  • Try to foresee problems; can you plan to avoid them?
    • Fear of computer breakdowns  daily backups to server
  • Have frequent check-up meetings
let s manage a party
Let’s manage a party!
  • List activities
  • Divide them into groups
    • Time based (e.g. ”preparations”)
    • Skill based (e.g. ”database programming”)
  • Assign people to tasks
  • Make a time line
  • Try to foresee problems
  • Check-ups?
easy reading
Easy reading
  • Meredith Belbin: Management Teams - så skapas framgångsrika team
    • Management Teams: Why they succeed or fail
  • Meredith Belbin: Teamroller i praktiken
    • Team Roles at Work
  • Ann & Marianne Fredriksson: De elva sammansvurna
zookeeper homework
Zookeeper: Homework
  • How many sounds are there in Zookeeper’s game mode?
    • Do you think the sound feedback matters? Why? Why not?
    • Which one sound do you think is the most important one?
zookeeper sounds

Shifting places


Cumulative scoring

All-of-a-kind scoring

Angry animal

No more move

Running out of time

Level done

Level up

Animals fall down onto new level

Game over – animals run away

Mouse-over options

Pause (actually the same as ”angry animal” – late fix?

Background music

Zookeeper Sounds
  • I found some 15