Project Management Certificate ProgramPersonal Skills & Team Dynamics for Project Management Module 2
Today’s Agenda • What makes projects fail/succeed? • Organizational structure considerations • Leadership Skills • Conflict management • General Management Skills • Dealing Effectively with Project Stakeholders • Building a Project Team • Facilitating Project Team Meetings
Why Do Projects Fail? • Inadequate resources • Inadequate time • Inadequate goals/expectations • Disagreement and confusion within the team • Inadequate management involvement, guidance, & support #1 Reason a project fails is lack of Leadership!
What Makes Projects Successful? • Team clearly understands the project outcome • Team members are willing and properly trained • Detailed, complete, up-to-date project plan • Adequate resources • Realistic project schedule • Feasible project scope Develop Work Processes that meet customer requirements
What Makes Projects Successful? • The team’s personal needs and priorities are considered vital • PM must have formal and on-going support of management and stakeholders • PM must be “adaptable” • PM must be a great communicator • PM must be “open” • PM must be a good leader Client-Focused Goal-Directed People-Oriented
B C D A Project 1 B C D A Project 2 Project 3 What Must Change Within Organizations? • Internally driven to customer driven (includes quality) • Functionally focused to process focused • Management centered to employee (team) involvement
How Organizations Are Changing • Traditional:Direct people • Participatory:Involve people • Team leadership: Build TRUST in people
Chief Executive Manager of Project Managers Functional Manager Functional Manager Project Manager Staff Staff Project Manager Staff Staff Project Manager Staff Staff Project Management Remember the Matrix? Consider Leadership …
Leadership Skills Leadership: Communicating people's worth potential so clearly, that they come to see it in themselves. (S Covey)
Exercise: As a group, discuss and list (on a flip chart) some of the traits you look for in a leader
Traits: Flexibility Ambition/energy Customer (quality) focused Intelligence Decisiveness Consciousness of social environment Willingness to take responsibility Creativity Persistence Tolerance toward ambiguity/stress Skills Conceptual Social Diplomacy Communication Organizational (administrative/time management) What Makes A Good Project Manager? You must live it—not just expect it from others! Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager. Vol 2 Vijay Verma, pg 212-213
S U P P O R T I V E B E H A V I O R LOW HIGH Situational Leadership Styles Directive Behavior HIGH PMI: Steppin’ Into Leadership.
Involving non-management level in planning Establishing ground rules for dealing with conflict (see sample meeting agenda) Conduct team building exercises Obtain team member commitment—regularly Communicate, communicate, communicate Leading Project TeamsTeam Building Activities / Improving Team Performance Team Spirit: “A readiness to work with others toward a common goal.”
Reward and recognition systems Must link performance with goals Should be project-oriented--not just organization Should consider environmental andcultural differences Logos Collocation (“tight matrix”) Team is in close proximity (WAR Room) Training Enhancing skills, knowledge, and capabilities Formal and informal Leading Project TeamsTeam Building Activities / Improving Team Performance
Leading Project Team Meetings(Group Dynamics) 4. Environment (Climate) “Where” 1. Group (Chemistry) “Who” 2. Goal (Achievability) “What” 3. Process (Appropriateness) “How” S.M.A.R.T. * SMES *Decision makers * Scribe * Valuable input * Stake- holders * Specific * Measurable * Achievable (Agreed upon) * Realistic * Timely * Information Sharing * Information Processing * Problem Solving * Process Improvement Phys. Size Chairs Tables Temp Lights Noise Tech. A/V Boards Handouts Flip Chart Markers Computer Emotional Affected by Physical and Technical
Executing Planning Initiating Controlling Leadership And The Project Management Life Cycle Decision maker Work/fun Trustworthiness Team Synergy Visionary Empowerment Listener Analytical Change master Team builder Power and influence Integrator Administrator Level of Activity Closing Time
Mourning/ Adjourning + Performing Forming 0 Productivity - Forming Storming Norming Adjourning Performing Storming Norming Team Stages Conflict
Conflict • “When two or more people’s differences escalate to a level that negatively affects (or may affect) productivity, quality, service, morale, or working relationships.” More Change, More People, More Conflict...
Views on Conflict Traditional View of Conflict: - Caused by troublemakers - Bad - Should be avoided Current View of Conflict: - Inevitable, often beneficial - Natural result of change • Can be managed • Use the differences!
Conflict Management • Definition: “A process by which the project manager uses appropriate managerial techniques to deal with inevitable disagreements - both technical and personal - that develop among those workingtoward project accomplishment.” • Your Goal: Manage and prevent conflicts • Minimize negative impact on project • Harvest the benefits
Schedules Project priorities--different visions/goals related to activities/tasks Resources Disagreements over technical issues and performance trade-offs (vagueness) “Administrivia” Cost Personality Team ConflictSources in order (overall project)
Ways to Resolve a Conflict (PMI) • Avoiding/Withdrawing – Ignoring or retreating from the problem • Smoothing - De-emphasize differences and emphasize commonalities – Friendly • Compromising - Find solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to parties - Neither wins • Forcing - Exert one's view at expense of another party • Problem Solving - Address disagreement directly. Select most appropriate alternative
Compromising (Bargaining, Partial Agreement Lose-Lose) Problem Solving, Collaborating/Confronting (Consensus, Win-Win) Assertive Forcing/Competing (Power, “My way…” Win-Lose) Unassertive Avoiding/Withdrawal (Passive, retreating Lose-Lose) Smoothing/Accommodating (Friendly Lose-Lose) Cooperative Uncooperative Conflict Management(Options)
How To Approach Conflict Mgmt • Prepare for Conflict • Expect conflict. • Plan ahead to handle conflict. (Communicate how the team will handle conflict.) • Face the Conflict • Serve as a lightning rod (Deal with it - don’t take it personally.) • Surface the real issues. • Resolve the Conflict • Look for win-win alternatives. • Cut your losses when necessary.
Conflict Management(...Ask Yourself) • What is the real source of the conflict? • Are you diplomatic enough to handle it yourself? • Can it be worked out with a meeting of the members in conflict? • Will it go away by itself? Conflict Management(Confronting/Problem Solving) Use a direct approach Pinpoint the problem Develop alternatives Objectively resolve (take the emotion out) Take the time Maintain open dialogue Get to a final solution Stay Win-Win
Conflict Resolution • Preventative measures • Meeting ground rules • Expectations • Communications • Consensus
Flight Fight Analytical Driver Amiable Expressive Be Versatile (Backup Behavior)The Versatile Salesperson, Roger Wenschlag, Wilson Learning Company Conflict/Backup Behavior When discussions break down…. Let them vent; listen, clarify, problem solve, ask. Draw them out; listen clarify, problem solve, ask.
Exercise How Do You Handle Conflict?
Exercise: Develop Team Operating Guidelines • Goal:To develop Team Operating Guidelines that reflect behaviors important to your team. • Benefits: • Establishes team expectations • Creates process before unwanted behavior occurs • Expedites Forming-Storming-Norming stages • Use Exercise handout
Five Key General Management Skills #1 Communicating • Getting information to the right people at the right time #5 Leading(covered in previous session) • Establishing direction, aligning people, motivating & inspiring #2 Negotiating • Reaching agreement #3 Problem Solving • Problem definition and decision making #4 Influencing the Organization • Getting things done (without formal authority)
Communication • Definition:“Involves the exchange of information.” (understanding) • Responsibilities • Sender - makes sure the information is clear, unambiguous, and complete. • Receiver - makes sure the information is received in entirety and understood correctly.
How Much Time Does a Project Manager Spend Communicating? • Project managers spend roughly 75 - 90% of their working hours speaking or listening. “One's effectiveness is determined by one's ability to reach others through the spoken or written word ... perhaps the most important of all skills.” -- Peter Drucker Reading 10% Speaking 30% Writing 10% Other 5% Listening 45% 75%
Dimensions of Communication • Written and oral, listening and speaking • Internal (within the project) and external (customer, media, public) • Formal and informal • Vertical (upper management, subordinates) and horizontal (peer departments)
Communication Model Field of Experience Field of Experience Filters: DistractionPerceptual/ Cultural Differences Interference Message Initiated Encoder/ Sender Decoder/ Receiver Idea Encoding Idea Encoding Shared Experience Interference Meaning Decoding Meaning Decoding Filters: DistractionPerceptual/ Cultural Differences Message Feedback Sources of Perceptual Differences: Words, culture, judgments, values, emotions, personalities TRANSFER UNDERSTANDING!
Feedback Guidelines • Feedback should be: • Timely – Given as soon as possible • Specific and descriptive – Don’t be general • Non-evaluative – Don’t get personal • Goal Oriented – Value of a change for the person • Limited – Don’t overload the person • Two-way – Allow the other person time to give observations
Communication Channels Formula(n = # people on project): n (n-1) 2 Number of channels for: • 6 people = 15 • 30 people = 435
Exercise: Your project team has just gone from 8 to 12 members. How many more channels of communication have been added?
Influencing the Organization • Definition: • “Ability to “get things done.” • Requires an understanding of: • Formal and informal organizational structures • Power and politics • Conflict management
Negotiating • Definition:“Conferring with others to come to terms with them or reach an agreement.” • Agreements may be negotiated: • Directly between the parties • With assistance • Mediation – neutral third party helps disputants work out their own solution to the conflict • Arbitration – neutral third party imposes a binding solution on the parties
“Negotiating involves conferring with others to come to terms with them or reach an agreement.” May focus on: Scope, cost, and schedule Changes to scope, cost, or schedule Contract terms and conditions Assignments Resources NegotiatingPMBOK, Appendix G Assisted and/or Unassisted
When is Negotiation Used? • All the time! Key skill to manage a project through the actions of others. • Some examples are: • Scope, cost, and schedule objectives & changes • Contract terms and conditions • Resource allocation (staff may be pre-assigned within project charter)
* Negotiation Spectrum Cooperative Competitive CONFLICT SPECTRUM Objective: WIN / WIN WIN / LOSE Style: Soft Hard More Less Control: Examples: Principled Negotiation Mediation War Arbitration Trial • Roger Fisher & William Ury, Getting to Yes, New York, Penguin Books, 1991 • William Ury, Getting Past No, New York, Penguin Books, 1993
Participants: Friends Goal: Agreement Make concessions to cultivate relationship Be soft (on the people/problem) Trust others Change position often Make offers Disclose bottom line Negotiating Soft vs. Hard • Participants: Adversaries • Goal: Victory • Demand concessions as a condition of the relationship • Be hard (on the people/ problem) • Distrust others • Dig in to position • Make threats • Mislead as to your bottom line “Getting To Yes”Roger Fisher and William Ury
Multi-Cultural Impact on Negotiations • Definition:“Culture is the distinctive way a group of people linked by geographic location, religion, and/or ethnic beliefs lead their lives.” • Project manager's own cultural bias affects negotiations • Self-reference criterion • Culture shock
Project Stakeholders • Definition:“Individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution or project completion.”