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Project Management. Henry C. Co Technology and Operations Management, California Polytechnic and State University. What is a project?. A unique, one-time effort Requires the completion of a large number of interrelated activities Resources, such as time and/or money, are limited

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project management

Project Management

Henry C. Co

Technology and Operations Management,

California Polytechnic and State University

what is a project

What is a project?

A unique, one-time effort

Requires the completion of a large number of interrelated activities

Resources, such as time and/or money, are limited

Typically has its own management structure

what is project management

What is project management?

Project management is the discipline of defining and achieving targets while optimizing the use of resources (time, money, people, materials, energy, space, etc) over the course of a project (a set of activities of finite duration).

slide5
To ensure that the project is correctly designed to meet its objectives
  • To ensure that the project is completed on schedule, within resources and budget
  • To provide a mechanism for monitoring the project

Source: Buruhani Nyenzi , CLIPS Training Workshop for RA I

http://www.wmo.ch/web/wcp/clips2001/modules/Project%20Management.ppt

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

to ensure that the project is correctly designed to meet its objectives

To ensure that the project is correctly designed to meet its objectives

Ensure that the project objectives and outcomes are fully agreed by all involved

Ensure that the objectives are achievable

Ensure that the objectives satisfy customer needs

to ensure that the project is completed on schedule within resources and budget

To ensure that the project is completed on schedule, within resources and budget

Ensures that the resources and budget are agreed and are consistent with the needs of the project

Ensures that the life of the project is clearly defined

to provide a mechanism for monitoring the project

To provide a mechanism for monitoring the project

Ensures project does not depart from agreed path

Provides mechanism for examining project progress (quarterly progress reports, agreed regular communication…)

Provides mechanism for correcting or stopping failing projects (project restructuring)

pert and cpm
PERT and CPM
  • PERT: Program Evaluation and Review Technique
  • CPM: Critical Path Method
    • Graphically displays project activities
    • Estimates how long the project will take
    • Indicates most critical activities
    • Show where delays will not affect project

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

project schedule
Project Schedule
  • Converts action plan into operating timetable
  • Basis for monitoring & controlling project activity
  • More important for projects than for day-to-day operations
    • projects lack continuity of on-going functions
    • more complex coordination needed
  • One schedule for each major task level in WBS
  • Maintain consistency among schedules
  • Final schedule reflects interdependencies, departments.

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

network model
Network Model
  • Serves as a framework for:
    • planning, scheduling, monitoring, controlling
    • interdependencies and task coordination
    • when individuals need to be available
    • communication among departments and functions needed on the project
  • Identifies critical activities and slack time
  • Reduces interpersonal conflict

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

pert cpm1
PERT / CPM
  • PERT:
    • Program Evaluation and Review Technique
    • estimates probability of on-time completion
  • CPM:
    • Critical Path Method
    • deterministic time estimates
    • control both time and cost
  • Similar purposes, techniques, notation
  • Both identify critical path and slack time
  • Time vs. performance improvement

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

pert cpm definitions
PERT / CPM Definitions
  • Activity: task or set of tasks
    • uses resources and takes time
  • Event: result of completing an activity:
    • has identifiable end state at a point in time
  • Network: combined activities & events in a project
  • Path: series of connected activities
  • Critical: activities, events, or paths which, if delayed, will delay project completion
  • Critical path: sequence of critical activities from start to finish
  • Node / Arrow (Arc) - PERT / CPM notation

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

the basics of using pert cpm
The Basics of Using PERT/CPM

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

the project network model
The Project Network Model

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

pert cpm notations
PERT / CPM Notations
  • EOT:
    • earliest occurrence time for event
    • time required for longest path leading to event
  • LOT: latest occurrence time for event
  • EST: earliest starting time for activity
  • LST: latest starting time for activity
  • Critical time: shortest time in which the project can be completed
  • Notation: AOA, AON, dummy activities

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

slack time
Slack Time

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

project network
Project Network

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

example
Example

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

partial network
Partial Network

How should activity K be added?

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

slide23

This works, but there is a better way.

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

earliest time for an event
Earliest Time for an Event

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

earliest time for each event
Earliest Time for Each Event

Expected time to complete the project is 44 days.

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

latest time for an event
Latest Time for an Event

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

latest time for each event
Latest Time for Each Event

Expected time to complete the project is 44 days.

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

slack time1
Slack Time

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

critical activities
Critical Activities

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

slide32
Expected completion time:
  • Based on optimistic, pessimistic, most likely
  • Take weighted average of the 3 times
      • TE = (a + 4m + b)/6
  • Uncertainty = variance (range of values)
  • Probability of completion of project in desired time D

Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)