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Project Management

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  1. Project Management Henry C. Co Technology and Operations Management, California Polytechnic and State University

  2. What is a project? A unique, one-time effort Requires the completion of a large number of interrelated activities Resources, such as time and/or money, are limited Typically has its own management structure

  3. What is project management? Project management is the discipline of defining and achieving targets while optimizing the use of resources (time, money, people, materials, energy, space, etc) over the course of a project (a set of activities of finite duration).

  4. What are the objectives of project management?

  5. To ensure that the project is correctly designed to meet its objectives • To ensure that the project is completed on schedule, within resources and budget • To provide a mechanism for monitoring the project Source: Buruhani Nyenzi , CLIPS Training Workshop for RA I http://www.wmo.ch/web/wcp/clips2001/modules/Project%20Management.ppt Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  6. To ensure that the project is correctly designed to meet its objectives Ensure that the project objectives and outcomes are fully agreed by all involved Ensure that the objectives are achievable Ensure that the objectives satisfy customer needs

  7. To ensure that the project is completed on schedule, within resources and budget Ensures that the resources and budget are agreed and are consistent with the needs of the project Ensures that the life of the project is clearly defined

  8. To provide a mechanism for monitoring the project Ensures project does not depart from agreed path Provides mechanism for examining project progress (quarterly progress reports, agreed regular communication…) Provides mechanism for correcting or stopping failing projects (project restructuring)

  9. PERT/CPM

  10. PERT and CPM • PERT: Program Evaluation and Review Technique • CPM: Critical Path Method • Graphically displays project activities • Estimates how long the project will take • Indicates most critical activities • Show where delays will not affect project Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  11. Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  12. Project Schedule • Converts action plan into operating timetable • Basis for monitoring & controlling project activity • More important for projects than for day-to-day operations • projects lack continuity of on-going functions • more complex coordination needed • One schedule for each major task level in WBS • Maintain consistency among schedules • Final schedule reflects interdependencies, departments. Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  13. Network Model • Serves as a framework for: • planning, scheduling, monitoring, controlling • interdependencies and task coordination • when individuals need to be available • communication among departments and functions needed on the project • Identifies critical activities and slack time • Reduces interpersonal conflict Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  14. PERT / CPM • PERT: • Program Evaluation and Review Technique • estimates probability of on-time completion • CPM: • Critical Path Method • deterministic time estimates • control both time and cost • Similar purposes, techniques, notation • Both identify critical path and slack time • Time vs. performance improvement Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  15. PERT / CPM Definitions • Activity: task or set of tasks • uses resources and takes time • Event: result of completing an activity: • has identifiable end state at a point in time • Network: combined activities & events in a project • Path: series of connected activities • Critical: activities, events, or paths which, if delayed, will delay project completion • Critical path: sequence of critical activities from start to finish • Node / Arrow (Arc) - PERT / CPM notation Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  16. The Basics of Using PERT/CPM Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  17. The Project Network Model Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  18. PERT / CPM Notations • EOT: • earliest occurrence time for event • time required for longest path leading to event • LOT: latest occurrence time for event • EST: earliest starting time for activity • LST: latest starting time for activity • Critical time: shortest time in which the project can be completed • Notation: AOA, AON, dummy activities Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  19. Slack Time Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  20. Project Network Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  21. Example Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  22. Partial Network How should activity K be added? Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  23. This works, but there is a better way. Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  24. Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  25. Earliest Time for an Event Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  26. Earliest Time for Each Event Expected time to complete the project is 44 days. Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  27. Latest Time for an Event Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  28. Latest Time for Each Event Expected time to complete the project is 44 days. Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  29. Slack Time Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  30. Critical Activities Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)

  31. Probabilistic Time Estimation

  32. Expected completion time: • Based on optimistic, pessimistic, most likely • Take weighted average of the 3 times • TE = (a + 4m + b)/6 • Uncertainty = variance (range of values) • Probability of completion of project in desired time D Project Scheduling (Henry C. Co)