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General Project Management Theory & Skills PowerPoint Presentation
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General Project Management Theory & Skills

General Project Management Theory & Skills

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General Project Management Theory & Skills

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  1. General Project Management Theory & Skills

  2. Project Management Body of Knowledge Application Area Knowledge, Standards, & Regulations Interpersonal Skills General Management Knowledge & Skills Understanding the Project Environment Project Management Body of Knowledge 1

  3. The Project Team Stakeholders $ponsor Sr. Mgmt Project Team Members f Manager Project Manager “Core Management Team” 3

  4. $ Q R S Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) $ponsor Sr. Mgmt. Project Manager ¦ Manager Team Member ¦Team Member 4

  5. Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) 5

  6. Organizational Influences and Structure • Project based organizations (2 categories) • Organizations that derive their revenue primarily from performing projects for others under contract • Organizations that have adopted management by projects 5

  7. Organizational Influences and Structure PMBOK Guide, 3rd Edition 6

  8. Functional Organization 6

  9. Projectized Organization 6

  10. Strong Matrix Organization 6

  11. Weak Matrix Organization 6

  12. Balanced Matrix Organization 6

  13. Organizational Influences and Structure • Project Coordinator • Less authority than a Project Manager • Does not make project or budget decisions • May assign resources • Functional and Weak Matrix 7

  14. Organizational Influences and Structure • Project Expeditor • Least amount of authority • Staff member that ensures things arrive on time • Staff member that manages schedules • Functional Organization 7

  15. General Management Theory & Skill • Power • “The ability to influence behavior in others” • Organizational / Legitimate • Individual / Earned 7

  16. General Management Theory & Skill • Legitimate / Formal Power (Organizational / Formal power) • Power the Project Manager has due to the position • Formally in charge of project and support from agency/organization • Projectized Organization 7

  17. General Management Theory & Skill • Reward Power (Organizational / Formal power) • Ability to give rewards and recognize achievements • Examples: pay raises, bonuses, etc. 7

  18. General Management Theory & Skill • Punishment Power (Organizational / Formal power) • Ability to punish employees if goals are not met • Also known as “coercive” power • Examples: demotions, pay reduction, etc. 7

  19. General Management Theory & Skill • Expert Power (Individual / Earned power) • Exists when individual is an expert • People will respond and listen because of credibility • Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) 8

  20. General Management Theory & Skill • Referent Power (Individual / Earned power) • Respect / charismatic traits of the individual • or • Allies with more powerful individual and leverages the power of the ally 8

  21. 50%+ of project conflicts Personality Cost Procedure Technical Opinions Human Resources Priorities Schedules Less common sources of conflict More common sources of conflict Conflict Management Sources of Conflict 8

  22. Conflict Management • Conflict Resolution Methods • Confronting / Problem Solving • Compromising • Forcing • Smoothing / Accommodating • Withdrawing / Avoiding 8

  23. Conflict Management • Confronting / Problem Solving • Sometimes referred to as “collaborating” • Generally viewed as the best method for conflict resolution • Looks to solve the conflict at the source so it will not be an issue for the project 8

  24. Conflict Management • Confronting / Problem-Solving when… • When conflicting parties can get at least what they want and maybe more • To reduce cost • To create a common power base • To attack a common foe • When skills are complimentary 8

  25. Conflict Management • Confronting / Problem-Solving when… • When there is enough time • When there is trust • When you have confidence in the other’s ability • When the ultimate objective is to learn 8

  26. Conflict Management • Compromising • To negotiate or bargain for a solution to give both parties some degree of satisfaction • “Give and take” or “win-win” • Neither party gets everything they want or need (“lose-lose”) 8

  27. Conflict Management • Compromising when… • When both parties need to be “winners” • When you can’t win • When others are as strong as you are • When you haven’t time to win • To maintain the relationship 8

  28. Conflict Management • Compromising when… • When you are not sure you are right • When you get nothing if you don’t • When stakes are moderate • To avoid giving the impression of “fighting” 8

  29. Conflict Management • Forcing • When one party imposes the solution on the other party • “win-lose” situation, wins at the expense of the loser • Does not always address the underlying source of conflict and often reduces team morale 9

  30. Conflict Management • Forcing when… • When you are right • When a do-or-die situation exists • When stakes are high • When important principles are at stake • When you are stronger 9

  31. Conflict Management • Forcing when… • To gain status or power • In short term (one time) deals • When the relationship is unimportant • When a quick decision must be made 9

  32. Conflict Management • Smoothing / Accommodating • Emphasize areas of agreement • Tends to downplay conflict instead of solving conflict • May make sacrifices to satisfy the needs of the other party 9

  33. Conflict Management • Smoothing / Accommodating when… • To reach an overarching or higher goal • To create obligation for a trade-off at a later date • When the stakes are low • When liability is limited 9

  34. Conflict Management • Smoothing / Accommodating when… • To maintain harmony • When any solution will be adequate • To create goodwill • When you will lose anyway • To gain time 9

  35. Conflict Management • Withdrawing / Avoiding • Temporary solution at best • Conflict and source of conflict will continue through project life • Some view as cowardice and unwillingness to address the conflict situation 9

  36. Conflict Management • Withdrawing / Avoiding when… • When you can’t win • When stakes are low • When stakes are high, but you are not ready • To gain time 9

  37. Conflict Management • Withdrawing / Avoiding when… • To unnerve your opponent • To preserve neutrality or reputation • When you think the problem will “go away” • When you win by delay 9

  38. Conflict Management • Conflict – Door stuck shut • Throw shoulder into door and break it open • (Forcing) • Ignore it, hope another will fix the door • (Withdrawing/Avoiding) • Determine what is causing the door to be stuck and correct the problem • (Confronting / Problem solving) 9

  39. Conflict Management • Preferred • Problem-solving • Compromising • Last Resort • Forcing • Avoid • Withdrawing / Avoiding 9

  40. General Management Theory & Skill • Team Roles • Constructive Team Roles • Destructive Team Roles • “An effective Project Manager will look to diminish or eliminate the effects of destructive team roles and enhance and maximize the effects of constructive team roles” 9

  41. Constructive Team Roles • Initiators • Brings ideas and activities to the project • Proactive • Highly productive • “Let’s try this!” 9

  42. Constructive Team Roles • Information Seekers • Looks to gain as much project information and understanding as possible • Opens communication • “Can we get this information?” 9

  43. Constructive Team Roles • Information Givers • Openly shares project information • Increases project knowledge • Opens communication • “Studies have shown that…” 9

  44. Constructive Team Roles • Encouragers • Maintains positive and realistic attitude within the project team • Keeps focus on what can be accomplished • Improves team morale • “Your idea has a lot of merit.” 10

  45. Constructive Team Roles • Clarifiers • Ensures everyone has the same project knowledge and understanding • Improves communication • “Let me restate what I’m hearing from the team...” 10

  46. Constructive Team Roles • Harmonizers • Enhances project information to increase project knowledge and understanding • Improves communication • “Your ideas are similar, let’s build from there...” 10

  47. Constructive Team Roles • Summarizers • Restate and relate project information back to the project objectives • Improves project understanding • “The details shared by the designers will improve the product and present a cost saving of...” 10

  48. Constructive Team Roles • Gate Keepers • Works to draw all project team members into the discussion • Also: Determines whether a project will continue to the next phase • “We haven’t heard from Jim, what are your thoughts?” 10

  49. Destructive Team Roles • Aggressors • Criticizes everybody and everything on project management • Acts aggressively • Deflates team morale 10

  50. Destructive Team Roles • Blockers • Rejects others viewpoints • Likes to criticize • Cites unrelated examples 11