Advanced Project Management International MBA. Instructor: L. Drew Rosen, Ph.D., JONAH. *Information derived or quoted from various sources: PMI; PMP Study Guide , by J. Phillips; PMI Mile High Chapter; Project Management in Practice by S. Mantel, J. Meredith, S. Shafer,
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Instructor: L. Drew Rosen, Ph.D., JONAH
*Information derived or quoted from various sources: PMI;
PMP Study Guide , by J. Phillips; PMI Mile High Chapter; Project
Management in Practice by S. Mantel, J. Meredith, S. Shafer,
M. Sutton; Project Management by C. Gray and E. Larson;
PMP Exam Study Guide by K. Heldman; PMP Exam Prep, by R. Mulcahy
“A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service”
Project Management Institute, 2005
Routine, Repetitive Work
Taking class notes
Daily entering sales receipts into the accounting ledger
Responding to a supply-chain request
Practicing scales on the piano
Routine manufacture of an Apple iPod
Attaching tags on a manufactured product
Writing a term paper
Setting up a sales kiosk for a professional accounting meeting
Developing a supply-chain information system
Writing a new piano piece
Designing an iPod that is approximately 2 X 4 inches, interfaces with PC, and stores 10,000 songs
Wire-tag projects for GE and Wal-Mart
Five Reasons for Failure
1. Lack of Project Manager Authority
“I must be a mushroom. They keep me in the dark, feed me manure, and then they can me.”
2. Lack of team participation
“If workers were smart, they’d be managers. Why ask them anything? After all, I’m the boss.”
“Reports are just useless paperwork and an irrelevant management requirement. I fill out the form and then forget the form.”
4. Lack of people skills
“I don’t thank people just for doing a good job. Doing a good job is what they get paid for.”
5. Unrealistic goals and schedules
“Your mission, should you decide to accept it…if caught or killed, the Secretary will disavow any knowledge…”
Three Reasons for Success
1. Committed teamwork
“If anything goes bad, I did it. If anything goes semi-good, then we did it. If anything goes real good, then you did it. That’s all it takes to get people to win football games.”
– Paul “Bear” Bryant
2. SMART Goals With Real Consensus
“Specific, Measurable, Agreed-Upon, Realistic, and Time-Specific.”
3. Use of project management tools as a means, not an end.
“We have 562 pages of charts and graphs and still don’t have a clue!”
The construction industry is the largest single employer of the country’s work force, it makes a major contribution to the gross national product, and yet suffers one of the highest annual business failure rates in the country. Studies have shown that the number of failures in the construction industry is much higher than it should be. The reason for the high failure rate is not because owners of companies do not have the technical skills required for construction but because owners have not developed adequate business management skills or techniques.--- in particular; communication skills!
Most business failures occur within the first three years of operation with the major reason being a lack of planning. Some of the other reasons which lead to business failure are:
Try identifying and then ranking the Triple Constraints for the following project.
Project: The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, the world’s most popular museum, was a Federal government project accomplished ahead of schedule and under budget.
The goal of the project was to build a world-class aviation and space museum for a budget of $30 million and open it on July 4, 1976.
1. Identify the Triple Constraints.
-Project Management Team
-The Project Management Office
Communication Paths Between a Project’s Parties-At-Interest
The real secret to making magic is a bunch of people all working together.
- TONY JEARY
The Key To Productivity
in the Workplace
-TO MAKE EASIER
(Webster’s 11th Collegiate Dictionary)
VS.GROUP DECISION MAKING THE MENTAL ASPECT
The Facilitator is like an orchestra leader. She or he must keep everyone on thesame sheet of musicplaying the same note, in the samebeat, all at the same time.
FACILITATORS ARE PROCESS MANAGERS
THEY DO NOT
CONTRIBUTE IDEAS OF THEIR OWN
MANAGING PROCESS IS YOUR ONLY JOB
“Put your energies into guiding rather then ruling. The more unobtrusive you lead, the more people will grow and learn to use their powers wisely. Make your aim as a leader to be unnoticed and eventually unneeded!”
--from My Tao, by R.W. Russell
SEPARTING ROLES: LEADER
(Facilitator, Leader, and Member)
Can you be Captain, Coach, Quarterback, Referee, and Cheerleader all at the same time?!Which Role(s) would you give up; keep?
He/She is the Neutral
Servant of the group.
With the basic decision making process and the specific “road maps,” proper facilitation will help you avoid potholes and detours, and get you where you want to go in an efficient, effective manner.
different tools. Which do you want to try first?
Say what’s going on
(say the unsayable)
Check for agreement
Avoid process battles
Enforce process agreements
Accept/Legitimize/Deal or Defer
Use body language
Use the Team Memory
Try to stay neutral
Not contribute my ideas
Manage process (be meeting
Focus team energy on the
Defend you from personal attack
Make process suggestions
Need your help to keep in
It’s your meeting
KNOW WHERE YOU’RE GOING
PAVE THE WAY
DEFINE YOUR ROLE
Project Life Cycle
Select a dream.
Use your dream to set a goal.
Create a plan.
Enhance skills and abilities.
Spend time wisely.
Start! Get organized and go.
… it is one of those acro-whatevers. Said Pooh.
R.E. Allen and S. D. Allen, Winnie-the-Pooh on Success, 1997, p.10
Question: Eight chocolates are arranged in an antique candy dish. Eight people each take one chocolate. There is one chocolate remaining in the dish. How can that be?
Question: How could your pet Yorkie fall from the window of an 18-story building and live?
Definition: the processes to ensure that the project includes
all work required, and only the work required, to complete
the project successfully
Step 1: Defining the Project Scope
Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities
Step 3: Creating the Work Breakdown Structure
Step 4: Integrating the WBS with the Organization
Step 5: Coding the WBS for the Information System
“I keep six honest serving-men (they taught me all I knew);
their names are What and Why and How and Where and Who.”
CConstructing a Project Network
BConstructing a Project Network (cont’d)
DConstructing a Project Network (cont’d)
FIGURE 6.2 (cont’d)
Use of Lags to Reduce Detail
Management reports. The simplicity and visual strength of a Gantt Chart makes it the ideal tool to use when you’re reporting to someone who doesn’t know project management.
Testing the Time constraint. When you’re doing preliminary project planning and have numerous parallel tasks, you often don’t know how long the project will take in calendar time. The Gantt Chart will show you.
Allocating resources. The Gantt Chart helps you to allocate and track resources and identify conflicts.
What-If analysis. You can explore many options visually and determine which one(s) are best for your project.
Resource management. The “Resource Gantt Chart” works both in controlling resources on a single project and in managing resources across projects in a multiple project environment.
Tracking progress. The “Tracking Gantt Chart,” which allows you to compare actual project performance to plan, shows you the consequence of tasks not finishing on their assigned times, and gives you a tool to explore options.
“It’s all about the people!”
Functional Mgrs. have
most if not all authority
Project Mgrs. have
most if not all authority
Lack of Focus
Lack of Ownership
Lines of communication outside functional dept. slow
Projects rarely given high priorityFunctional Organization of Projects
Project Manager Negotiated Issues Functional Manager
What has to be done? Who will do the task? How will it be done?
When should the task be done? Where will the task be done?
How much money is available to Why will the task be done? How will the project involvementdo the task? impact normal functional activities?
How well has the total project Is the task satisfactorily How well has the functional been done? completed? input been integrated?
Source: Larson, E. W., and Gobeli, D. H., “Matrix Management: Contradictions and Insights,” California Management Review, vol. 29, no. 4 (Summer 1987), p. 137.
I. Physical Characteristics
(Architecture, office layout, décor, attire)
II. Public Documents
(Annual reports, internal newsletters, vision statements)
(Pace, language, meetings, issues discussed, decision-making style, communication patterns, rituals)
(Stories, anecdotes, heroines, heroes, villains)
Level of Performance
(These people are self –led, motivated, and can
Accomplish new tasks proactively)
(Need to be watched, they avoid work, responsibility
They have no ability to achieve, lazy etc.)
Ouchi’s Theory Z – based on the participative management style of the Japanese. Workers are motivated by a sense of commitment, and “lifetime employment”
Expectancy Theory - people will behave based on what they expect as a result of their behavior, i.e., they will work in relation to the expected reward of the work
Confronts the Problem
Power forces a Solution
Balancing Multidisciplinary Teams
Sit where you can watch both.
Sit apart so you “speak with two voices.”
Keep your group together for the appearance of power.
Intermingle to diffuse their power.
Perceived performance Expected performance
Quality is the responsibility of blue-collar Quality is everyone’s responsibility, workers and the direct labor employees including white-collar workers,
working on the floor. indirect labor force, and the overhead staff
Quality defects should be hidden from the Defects should be high-lighted and Customers (and possibly management) brought to the surface for corrective action
Quality problems lead to blame, faulty Quality problems lead to cooperative justification, and excuses solutions
Corrections-to-quality problems should be Documentation is accomplished with minimum documentation essential for “lessons learned”
so that mistakes are not repeated
Increased quality will increase project costs Improved quality saves money and increases business
Quality is internally focused Quality is customer focused
Quality will not occur without close People want to produce quality supervision of people products
Quality occurs during project execution Quality occurs at project initiation and must be planned for within the project
Your projects are full of hidden resources and opportunities.
Every project has hidden resources that can solve many of your problems. Proper planning will help you uncover those resources and use them properly. These resources go by strange names—resource slack, weak constraint flexibility, control point identification. You’ll learn how to uncover and use them as you read this.
Resources are scarce—so don’t waste the ones you have.
Remember: You waste a resource if you don’t know it’s there in the first place.
When you need one great idea, start with several ideas.
The tools of brainstorming are an important resource for project managers. Don’t go it alone; get input and fresh ideas from other sources. When you’re overstressed and over-anxious, racing your brain for insights and solutions, you don’t think at top capacity. Allow your project team to carry some of the creative load; it helps you –and it improves their moral at the same time.
Take the time to plan and to set goals.
Thousands of projects fail each year because their managers didn’t do the preliminary steps in the right order, especially defining and planning. Make sure you know what the goal of the project is; make sure you understand the work; make sure you have a plan. Then start the work. You wouldn’t go to the target practice and shout, “Ready! Fire! Aim!” Don’t take that attitude with your projects.