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Chapter 17 . Mixed Methods Designs. Key Ideas. Defining mixed methods research When do you use mixed methods designs? The development of mixed methods research Types of mixed methods designs Key characteristics of mixed methods research Steps in conducting a mixed methods study

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chapter 17

Chapter 17

Mixed Methods Designs

Power Point Slides by Ronald J. Shope in collaboration with John W. Creswell

key ideas
Key Ideas
  • Defining mixed methods research
  • When do you use mixed methods designs?
  • The development of mixed methods research
  • Types of mixed methods designs
  • Key characteristics of mixed methods research
  • Steps in conducting a mixed methods study
  • Evaluating a mixed methods study

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

what is mixed methods research
What is mixed methods research?

A mixed methods research design is a procedure for collecting, analyzing, and “mixing” both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study to understand a research problem.

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

when do you use mixed methods research
When do you use mixed methods research?
  • When both quantitative and qualitative data, together, provide a better understanding of your research problem than either type by itself
  • To provide a complete picture of the research problem
    • Quantitative: trends and describing population
    • Qualitative: participants’ words
  • When you want to build from one phase of a study to another
    • Explore qualitatively then develop an instrument
    • Follow-up a quantitative study to obtain more detailed information.

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

how did mixed methods research develop
How did mixed methods research develop?
  • Mixing of forms of quantitative data
    • Campbell and Fiske (1959) Multitrait Multimethod approach)
    • Developing multiple psychologial traits using multiple methods
  • Expanding into triangulation of quantitative and qualitative (Jick 1979 merger study)
  • Debating the integration of worldviews and methods
  • Developing procedures for designs
  • Advocating for a distinct design (Greene & Caracelli, 1997; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998)

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

identifying a mixed methods study in the literature
Identifying a mixed methods study in the literature
  • The title for words such as “mixed methods” or “multi-method” etc.
  • Data collection section indicates both qualitative and quantitative data were collected
  • Purpose statement and or research questions indicate that the researcher intends to collect both quantitative and qualitative data during the study

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

identifying a mixed methods study in the literature7
Identifying a mixed methods study in the literature
  • Priority or weight: qualitative, or quantitative or both equally
  • Sequence of collecting quantitative and qualitative data is indicated
  • Analyze both data sets
    • Combined in one analysis (Integrated)
    • Separate analysis

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

a notation system for designs

Study #1 QUAL + QUAN

+indicates the simultaneous or concurrent collection

of quantitative and qualitative data.

Study #2 QUAN qual

Shows sequential collection of

quantitative and qualitative data

A notation system for designs

NOTATION USED

Uppercase letters indicate a priority or increased

weight for either quantitative and qualitative data.

Lowercase letters indicate a lower priority or weight

for either quantitative or qualitative data

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

mixed methods designs explanatory design
Mixed methods designs: Explanatory design
  • Researcher places priority on quantitative (QUAN) data collection and analysis
  • Researcher collects quantitative data first in the sequence
  • Researcher uses the qualitative data to refine the results of the quantitative data

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

mixed methods designs triangulation design
Mixed methods designs: Triangulation design
  • Researcher gives priority to both quantitative (QUAN) and qualitative (QUAL) data
  • Researcher collects both quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously
  • Researcher compares the results from quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine if the two data bases yield similar or dissimilar results

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

mixed methods designs exploratory design
Mixed methods designs: Exploratory design
  • Research emphasizes qualitative (QUAL) data rather than quantitative (quan) data
  • Researcher has a sequence to data collection that involves collecting qualitative data followed by quantitative data
  • Researcher plans on the quantitative data to build on or explain the initial qualitative findings

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

types of mixed methods designs
Types of mixed methods designs

I. Triangulation mixed methods Design

+

QUAN

Data and Results

QUAL

Data and Results

Interpretation

II. Explanatory mixed methods Design

QUAN

Data and Results

qual

Data and Results

Follow-up

III. Exploratory mixed methods Design

QUAL

Data and Results

quan

Data and Results

Building

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

key characteristics of mixed methods design
Key Characteristics of mixed methods Design
  • Rationale for the design
  • Collecting quantitative and qualitative data
  • Priority
  • Sequence
  • Data analysis matched to design
  • Diagram of the procedures

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

key characteristics of mixed methods designs rationale
Key characteristics of mixed methods designs: Rationale
  • Rationale
    • Test findings of first phase
    • Explain in more detail results of first phase
    • Provide a more complete understanding than either quantitative or qualitative alone
  • Collecting both qualitative and quantitative data
    • Numeric data
    • Text data

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

key characteristics of mixed methods designs rationale15
Key characteristics of mixed methods designs: Rationale
  • Priority
    • Equal weight
    • Quan carries more weight than qual
    • Qual carries more weight than quan
  • Sequence
    • Collect both quantitative and qualitative data at the same time.
    • Collect quantitative data first, followed by qualitative data.
    • Collect qualitative data first followed by quantitative data.

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

key characteristics of mixed methods designs rationale16
Key characteristics of mixed methods designs: Rationale
  • Analysis matched to design
    • Data analysis strategies for triangulation design
    • Data analysis strategies for exploratory design
    • Data analysis strategies for explanatory design
  • Diagram of procedures
    • Use notation system
    • Identify priority
    • Identify sequence

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

steps of conducting a mixed methods study
Steps of Conducting a mixed methods Study

Develop quantitative

and qualitative research

questions

Collect quantitative

and qualtitative data

Step 4

Step 5

Identify the data

collection strategy and

type of design

Priority

Sequence

Visualization

Step 3

Analyze data

separately or

concurrently

Step 6

Identify a Rationale

for a mixed methods

Study

Determine if a Mixed

Methods Study is

Feasible

Write the report as a

One- or Two-Phase

Study

Step 2

Step 1

Step 7

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

evaluating a mixed methods study
Evaluating a mixed methods study
  • Does the study employ at least one quantitative method and one qualitative method?
  • Is it called a mixed methods (or a similar term) study?
  • Is there a rationale for why the author intends to mix the methods in a single study and what will be gained in the process?

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

evaluating a mixed methods study19
Evaluating a mixed methods study
  • Does the author indicate the type of mixed methods study being presented? Alternatively, can you identify the type from reading the rationale or from a visual figure depicting the flow of the data collection activities?
  • Does the author mention the priority given to quantitative and qualitative data and the sequence of their use in the study?
  • Is the study feasible, given the data to be collected and the amount of money, time, and expertise required?

Educational Research 2e: Creswell

evaluating a mixed methods study20
Evaluating a mixed methods study
  • Have research questions been written for both quantitative and qualitative methods in the study?
  • Have quantitative and qualitative data collection procedures been clearly identified?
  • Are the procedures for data analysis consistent with the type of mixed methods study being presented?
  • Is the written structure of the study consistent with the type of mixed methods study being presented?

Educational Research 2e: Creswell