China Day 1: Ming Dynasty
Essential Questions • 1. In what ways did the Ming Ding dynasty make China more stable? • 2. What was the primary role of Zheng He for the Ming Dynasty?
Ming Dynasty • Hongwu expels Mongol forces from China – 1368 • Believed traditions & institutions bring stability to China • Confucianism • Restores China’s power and prosperity • Increase rice production & irrigation • Rise of fish farming, cotton & sugar cane industry Hongwu
Ming Dynasty • Stability, plentiful food led to significant population growth • Instituted civil service exams • Eliminated anyone challenging authority
Before European Exploration • Ming gov’t sponsors 7 voyages (1405-1433) • Impress foreign people w/ its power • 317 ships w/ 28,000 armed troops • Led by Zheng He – travels to SE Asia, India, & Africa • Distributes silver & silk for diplomacy & to show China’s superiority • Voyages discontinued b/c voyages thought as wasteful spending – want money to go to defense.
Treasure Ship Treasure ships” – could hold 500+ people
China Day 2: Ming Dynasty
Essential Questions • 1. To what extent did the Ming Dynasty embrace isolationist policies? • 2. What factors led to the decline of the Ming Dynasty?
Leave Us Alone! • Isolationist policies • Restrict foreign travel and trade (only 3 ports) • Preserve Chinese culture • Government sponsored study of Chinese cultural traditions, especially Confucianism • Great Wall of China • Defend against northern Mongols
The Great Wall of China(Do not write down) Use of smoke signals to communicate messages Built mainly of stone, dirt, wood, and mud The Wall served well. Only when a dynasty had weakened from within, were invaders from the north able to advance and conquer
Decline of the Ming • After 200 years • Ineffective rulers • Corrupt officials • Government bankrupt • High taxes and bad harvests lead to rebellion • Manchus invade China (2nd time foreigners rule) • Take the name Qing or “pure”
China Day 3: Confucianism
Essential Question • 1. To what extent does Confucianism create social harmony?
Confucius • Influence: 4th century BC • Scholarly life teaching history, music, & moral character • Lived during a time of crisis/violence in China • Goal: restore social order, harmony, & a good gov’t • Ideas collected in the Analects
Five Relationships for Harm • 1. ruler & subject • 2. father & son • 3. husband & wife • 4. older brother & younger brother • 5. friend & friend • Example: Rulers should practice kindness. In return, subjects should be loyal.
Key Concepts • Ren “benevolence” in accordance with: • Li– ritual norms • Shu– reciprocity • Zhong – loyalty • Xiao – filial piety • This equals the:de(virtue)
Confucius and Government • Goal: show rulers how to govern wisely • Education transforms a humbly born person into a gentleman • Money corrupts • Lays the groundwork for a bureaucracy • A religion or philosophical system or both?
China Day 4: Qing Dynasty
Essential Question • 1. How did the Manchus institute their own culture and prevent the West from “polluting” theirs own?
Qing Dynasty • Uphold Confucian beliefs and structures • Manchus just 2% of the population • Gave lower military and government jobs to Chinese • A New “Sheriff in Town” • Forbid intermarriage • Force Manchu hairstyles as sign of loyalty – queue • Mandate study of Manchu language by Chinese
Qing Dynasty • Continued isolationist policies • Not impressed by Western advancements • Believed Chinese culture was superior • Self-sufficient society • Healthy agricultural economy • Extensive mining & manufacturing industries • Produced silks, cottons, porcelain
China Day 5: Qing Dynasty
Essential Question • 1. Explain how opium impacted isolationism and trade in Qing China
Trading • Qing enjoyed a favorable balance of trade • Strong European demand for silk, porcelain, and tea • Britain: Use opium instead of silver • 1835: 12 million Chinese users • Opium War of 1839: • Britain’s steam-powered gunboats overpower China’s outdated ships • Treaty gives Britain Hong Kong & trading rights
China Day 6: Qing Dynasty
Essential Question • 1. How did foreign powers gradually come to control China’s economy?
Decline of the Qing • Taiping Rebellion (1830s)– Desire to use China’s wealth to prevent anyone from living in poverty • British & French end rebellion • 20+ million Chinese dead • Foreign countries take advantage of weakened state & attack China • Negotiate treaty to give nations control over China’s economy
Spheres of Influence • DEFINED: A region in which a state has political, economic, or cultural influence over. • US declares Open Door Policy – allows China’s “doors” to be open to merchants of all nations • Protects China from colonization, but still puts Qing at mercy of foreign powers
Decline of the Qing • Debate among Chinese: Preserve ways or modernize • European missionaries convert Chinese • Boxer Rebellion: 1900: surround European section for months • Rebel against the West • Multinational forces squash rebellion • Decades of instability w/internal & external threats • Not until the mid-1900s that China progresses