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The Middle Ages. An Overview. Alaric I at the Sack of Rome (410). a violent, dangerous world. I. Effects of the collapse of Roman Civilization. Decline of trade and cities (de-urbanization) Loss of literacy and a common language Personal ties replaced the concept of citizenship

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the middle ages

The Middle Ages

An Overview

i effects of the collapse of roman civilization
I. Effects of the collapse of Roman Civilization
  • Decline of trade and cities (de-urbanization)
  • Loss of literacy and a common language
  • Personal ties replaced the concept of citizenship
  • Christianity spread and emerged as the only unifying element
    • Missionaries (St. Patrick, Augustine of England)
    • Political “conversions” (Clovis)
    • Monastic life (Benedictine Rule)
ii feudal society reciprocity
II. Feudal Society: Reciprocity
  • “Estates”
    • Those who work (serfs and burghers)
    • Those who fight
    • Those who pray
  • Lords and vassals
  • Serfdom

Hell was very Real

“How can we avoid going there?”

the investiture controversy
The Investiture Controversy
  • Who is more powerful, pope or emperor?
  • Who should appoint (invest) bishops?

Problem: Heresy.


first crusade to free the holy land
First Crusade to “free” the Holy Land
  • Map 9.2: The First Crusade, 1096–1098 (p. 354)
iv effects of the crusades on europe
IV. Effects of the Crusades on Europe
  • New military technique and technology.
    • New ideas to use on each other (100 years war)
  • Strengthened the power of kings and the middle class
  • Exchange of ideas and goods
    • Revival of trade
v the babylonian captivity and the great schism
V. The Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism
  • Babylonian Captivity (1309-1377)
    • Papal seat moved to Avignon, France
    • Suspicion of French control over the Church
  • Great Schism (1378-1417)
    • Mutual excommunication by French and Italian popes
    • Two series of popes until 1417
  • Resulted in suspicion of popes and the church generally.