MORE REVOLUTIONS. A World After WWI. Revolution?. Fear change? Embrace change? Consequences? Benefits?. III. Imperial China Collapses. China on the verge of a Revolution! Foreign countries controlled trade & economic resources (imperialism) wanted to build up (industrialization)
A World After WWI
a) Sun hoped to establish a modern government based on the “Three Principles of the People”:
(3) people’s livelihood—economic security for all Chinese
b) main weaknesses of the new republic
1) Started with 3000 angry students uprising in Beijing and the movement spread
a national movement - the people wanted to establish a strong & modern nation
1. Mao Zedong- (1921) organizes a COMMUNIST movement
c) many peasants began to support the Chinese Communist Party
d) Mao divided land that the Communists won among the local farmers
a) Nearly wiped out the Chinese Communist Party.
1) Great Britain & the United States formally recognized the new government
2) the Soviet Union did not!
1. 1930, Nationalists vs. Communists
2. The Long March
Mao’s (red army) Communists vs. Jiang’s Nationalists
1. Communists outnumbered and they fled
2. 6000 mile journey, over a year long
3. 10,000-30,000 reached safely in NW China
4. Jiang’s forces couldn’t reach them, so the Red Army survived in caves
5. at least 2/3 of the original marchers did not complete the journey but more people joined the Communists along the way
Eventually, sparks up…
1. end of World War I
1.Remember: Gandhi, Sepoys, Rebellion against the British rule???
World War I increases Nationalist Activity
1) Causing violent protests!
b) British believed People were openly defying the ban
c) troops fired on the crowd without warning
killed 400 Indians, 1,200 wounded.
b) Teachings blended ideas from all of the major world religions
2) weaken the British government’s authority & economic power over India.
c) began to make their own salt by collecting seawater & letting it evaporate
d) Police officers with steel-tipped clubs attacked the demonstrators
e) won worldwide support for Gandhi’s independence movement
1. 1935, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act.
a) provided local self-government
b) limited democratic elections
c) not total independence
2. Indian Muslims feared that Hindus would control India if it won independence
1. Ottoman Empire was forced to give up all its territories except Turkey
Helped to overthrow the Ottoman sultana) Mustafa Kemal -Ataturk—“father of the Turks.”
2) 1923, Kemal became the president of the new Republic of Turkey, the first republic in Southwest Asia
c) granted women the right to vote & to hold public Office
d) launched government-funded programs to industrialize Turkey & to spur economic growth
a) powerful Arabian family began a successful campaign to unify Arabia