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  3. By the end of this unit you will be able to…. • A. COMPARE THE MAJOR IDEAS OF THE FOLLOWING PHILOSOPHERS: 1. Charles-Louis Montesquieu 2. Jean-Jacques Rousseau 3. Denis Diderot 4. Rene Descartes 5. Voltaire 6. Thomas Jefferson 7. James Madison 8. John Locke Answer… what was the effect of their philosophies on the democratic revolutions in England, America, and France?

  4. Compare and contrast the… • Glorious Revolution • The American Revolution • The French Revolution • Please, pay particular attention to the expectation of self government and Individual Liberty • List the principles of the… • Magna Carta • English Bill of Rights • American Declaration of Independence • The French Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen • The U. S Bill of Rights • The U. S Constitution…the ideals of equality, justice and freedom under the law

  5. QUICKWRITE: • Explain the meaning of Voltaire’s word “ I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it” GROUP POSTER PROJECT In a group of 5 you will prepare answers to the following: • Montesquieu…who was he, why do you like/dislike him, what did he say about government, or individual rights? • Natural Rights… what does it mean, who came up with the idea, who has it, when do they have it, who can take it away? • Natural Law… definition (in your own words), who proposed it, what is it? The Social Contract…what is it, what does it say, who wrote it, what does it mean? • Jean-Jacques Rousseau… who was he, do you like/dislike him, what did he think about REASON, what is REASON?, what did he think about human nature? • The General Will… who came up with it, what is it, what does it mean, what governmental system is best represented by this system, which is not? • Each member of the group will use a different color to transfer/write and draw your answers on the poster. • I will grade on the depth of understanding of your answers, your creativity (would I buy this in an art gallery?), the completeness of your answers, and the contributions of EVERY MEMBER.

  6. For the second poster, in this series, you will… • Make a poster that lists the major IDEAS, and contributions, of the 8 listed philosophers. • Each must have at least 5 entries • You will summarize your poster by answering the following question (for each philosopher) • How did each philosopher contribute to our way of life today? • If your group could adopt one philosopher which one would it be and explain why?

  7. England’s road to democracy • For 1000 years, the English had a monarchy…kings. • Kings shared power with their nobles who gave them military and monetary support. • The power, therefore, was primarily in the hands of the nobility. • They didn’t pay taxes, they were free to do anything they wanted to, to their serfs (dude), they were above the law…and they enjoyed the power…so would you! • Enter a handsome, kind, brave, clever, and romantic king, Richard the Lionhearted…so what if he only spoke French! • Did I mention he was handsome? • His younger brother, John, was cruel, cowardly, clever, unromantic, and unpopular. • Richard the Lionhearted only spent 9 months of his reign in England • The rest of the time he was off with the Crusades…killing, burning, pillaging, and raping in the name of religion

  8. While Richard is off ‘with the boys,’ John is taxing the nobles, imprisoning ordinary folk… grabbing cash wherever he could so he could live in luxury. • John was a really nasty piece of work. • His nephew, Arthur, Richard’s son, had a better claim to the throne than he did, so he had him murdered…he was 5 years old. • He was always watching his back, as he was convinced all his men were trying to kill him…they were! • After Richard died, John became king and ruined the economy of England, and Ireland. • Some of the nobility, Barons, got so fed up with the mess John was making of the country, they rebelled and captured London. • Stealing from the poor was one thing! But, he was stealing from them and they were ticked off. In 1215 AD/CE they had had enough and so they……………… John’s tomb effigy

  9. In 1215 AD/CE they had had enough and so they……………… • Forced him to meet their leaders at Runnymede, near London, on June 15, 1215 to seal the Great Charter called, in Latin, Magna Carta. • Magna Carta influenced many common laws and other documents, such as the US Constitution and Bill of Rights, and is considered one of the most important legal documents in the history of democracy. • Magna Carta required the king to give up certain rights, respect certain legal procedures and accept that the king was not above the law. • It protected certain rights of the king's subjects… the right of Habeas Corpus, meaning that they had rights against unlawful imprisonment.

  10. The results….. • The power of the king was reduced forever. • The Magna Carta establishes very important precedents in English government and law. 1. The English monarch was answerable to the people 2. The English monarch was not above the law 3. The idea of Divine Right, in England, was dead…very different from the French 4. Habeas corpus (Latin: ‘We command that you have the body’) is the name of a legal action, through which a person can seek relief from unlawful detention of themselves or another person. The writ of habeas corpus has historically been an important instrument for the safeguarding of individual freedom against arbitrary state action. This one you will get a laugh out of…Clause 54 says that no man may be imprisoned on the testimony of a woman except on the death of her husband.

  11. Back to nasty King John…. • Whilst crossing a body of water, the Wash…yes, it’s called the Wash…John’s entire treasure disappeared beneath the water and was swallowed up in the mud. • All his gold, precious jewels, and jewelry gone! …this certainly proves the old saying – everything comes out in the wash! • King John, famous for his disgusting feeding habits, literally ate himself to death in 1216! Glass windows introduced to replace brick windows in 1180…I bet the view was better Knife and fork introduced into England in 1200 In 1185 Oxford University began…this is the Bodleian Library.

  12. As we are interested in the development of British Constitutional Monarchy, we will skip through the next four centuries…past the Black Death, past the 100 years war, past the revolting Scots, past Henry VIII and all his wives…we are getting close… past the introduction of tobacco and potatoes to England…and finally we land at Charles I...all 4 foot 10 of him!

  13. The Many Faces of Charles I

  14. Charles I by Van Dyck (1633) How do you suppose he looks as tall as the horse? And here is Henrietta

  15. Standing a proud 4 foot 10 inches he was prudish, shy, shifty, and he stammered. Born in Scotland he really did not understand the English…but then who does? He believed if he set a good example, the world would follow…how wrong could he be? For a start, he went and married the horribly haughty Henrietta…the king of France’s daughter…and she was taller than him! Whom his faithful English subjects soon learned to loathe Charles managed to get into a war with Spain. He asked Parliament for money, to fight, and they told him no and to go get tall! So, he tried to get sneaky, he forced people to house and feed his soldiers in their homes… this is called quartering …remember it! Parliament finally gave him the money…which he lost and had to ask the Spanish king for peace! He certainly forgot about the Magna Carta

  16. Charles was one of those kings who thought he was next in line to God, which meant nobody had the right to question him…“How tall are you your majesty?” That really got him mad! • Parliament thought it had the right to question him…they were on a collision course. • In the end, things came to the crunch over – three guesses? • Yup, religion • Parliament passed a law against the Catholic faith which Charles, having Catholic sympathies, took rather badly…his wife was Catholic and taller! • He dismissed Parliament and ran the country alone…for 11 years! • Charles was strapped for cash • And then for reasons only known to himself he taxed anyone who lived near the sea…the ship tax! • Hello, England’s an island…everyone lives near the sea! • Parliament refused to give him any more money…he was so ticked off he…

  17. He was so mad he took what was left of his army to London to arrest them all! • Well you just don’t do that to Parliament…and besides they all hid and he couldn’t find them! • The whole country took sides and whoopee! We have a proper civil war…nice one Charles. A Cavalier Buckingham…his father’s lover…we can’t talk about it pike men

  18. Civil War (1621-1649) Royalists(Cavaliers…it means a man who swaggers) Parliamentarians(Roundheads) • House of Lords • Aristocracy • Large landowners • Church officials • Catholics • The King • House of Commons • Puritans • Merchants • Townspeople • More urban , more prosperous

  19. Parliament had access to lots of money…they taxed everyone! • The biggest advantage they had was a man called Oliver Cromwell • A Puritan, Cromwell was MP for Cambridge… and no fun! • In 1644 a combination of Roundheads (Parliament’s soldiers) , Scots and Cromwell’s new cavalry beat the pants off the Cavaliers, or Royalists, at Marston Moor. • Parliament were so ‘stoked’ they asked Cromwell to build a new elite army of professional soldiers – he did…the New Model Army • The men were paid the amazing sum of 10p a day (10 cents)…wow! • They were a tough bunch even though they were trained not to drink (alcohol), swear, rape or pillage. • They never lost a battle • Charles I saw the writing on the wall and fled to Scotland for safety… • The Scots promptly filled their sporrans by selling him to Parliament

  20. Oliver Cromwell Outside Parliament…today

  21. New Model Army Soldier’s Catechism…manual

  22. Do you think Ollie was happy to be rid of this ‘pain in the neck’? • Cromwell and Parliament now tried the king for treason • And, then in 1649 at a huge public ceremony, severed Charles I’s head off!!! Not many people know this…but, when in 1813Charles’s coffin was rediscovered, Sir Henry Halford did an autopsy on the body and stole poor Charles’s fourth vertebra. For years he used to horrify his dinner guests by using it as a salt holder. Queen Victoria…no sense of humor…ordered him to put it back in the coffin No longer 5 foot, Charles alas, got smaller. He was no longer ‘head’ of state

  23. So, what have we learned about so far about where the power to GOVERN lies in England? • Let’s sum up the following 40 years really quickly…Cromwell dies, Charles’s son Charles is asked to come back and be king…he is a serious player and fun loving guy who eventually dies, his brother James becomes king…oh no, he’s Catholic, kick him out! • They shop around Europe for a king • Not just any king…they wanted someone who would listen and let parliament have the final say. • This king had to agree that parliament was the main power in England…the big cheese, numero uno, the cat’s meow! Where to find one? • In the Netherlands…William and Mary of Orange…he was know to his friends as Minute maid) • He agreed to a set of demands that laid out what he could do and the RIGHTS THE ENGLISH PEOPLE HAD! • Because James had been kicked out of England without a shot being fired and no one was killed the Brits called this bloodless event “The GLORIOUS REVOLUTION” • Let’s take a look at these rights called THE BILL OF RIGHTS and see if you recognize any

  24. The English Bill of Rights • The English Bill of Rights of 1689 • Largely they are a statement of certain positive rights that its authors considered that citizen/subject of a CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY ought to have. • It asserts the Subject's right to petition…a subject can ask the government to correct, or repair, an injustice. • Subject's have a right to bear arms for defense. • In fact you will find all of the English Bill of Rights in the first eight amendments to the U.S. Constitution…please bring in a copy of the American Bill of Rights, (the first 10 amendments of the constitution), you will glue it into your notebook. • In addition to those rights in the English Bill of Rights do not forget the rights contained in the Magna Carta… • Habeas Corpus Act • Any unjustly imprisoned persons could obtain a writ of habeas corpus compelling the govt. to explain why he had lost his liberty. • Make a comparison…Venn diagram, etc…of the English and American Bills of Rights

  25. William And Mary St. James's Palace

  26. Buckingham Palace

  27. English Bill of Rights [1689] • Main provisions: • The King could not suspend the operation of laws. • The King could not interfere with the ordinary course of justice. • No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without Parliament’s consent. • Freedom of speech in Parliament. • Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently. • Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment. • The monarch must be a Protestant. • Freedom from arbitrary arrest. • Censorship of the press was dropped. • Religious toleration.

  28. And here it is…no I did not spill tea on it…